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By close analysis of the structure and language of chapter one discuss how Forster expresses his overall concerns within the novel as a whole via this initial description of the Indian landscape

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Introduction

A2 English literature Coursework: Close text Essay "By close analysis of the structure and language of chapter one discuss how Forster expresses his overall concerns within the novel as a whole via this initial description of the Indian landscape." Through chapter one of 'A Passage to India' Forster does far more than introduce the small town of Chandrapore. In this initial section of the novel the construction of the text reflects the tiered Indian society that becomes the basis for Forster's deeper exploration of mankind and human behaviour. In addition, the ominous significance of the Marabar Caves within the novel is prefigured via the mysterious imagery used to describe them. This is contrasted by the more optimistic language which is used to describe the 'overarching sky' that unifies all men and points towards a hope for the future of peaceful co-existence. At the beginning of the chapter the reader is first introduced to the Muslim aspect of Chandrapore, the lowest tier of the Indian society but perhaps the most resilient. Here what Adela will later refer to as the 'Real India' is depicted. Through vivid imagery the area appears akin to a wasteland devoid of any significance. Even the holy river Ganges is described as "Trailing for a couple of miles...scarcely distinguishable from the rubbish it deposits so freely." ...read more.

Middle

Moore's passage to India is in fact a deeper analogy for a more complex passage of mankind towards understanding itself. On a second rise of land lies the "Little civil station." As the focal point for Eurasian society it is remarked that, "From here...Chandrapore appears to be a totally different place." This observation encapsulates the way in which the station and its social club both seem to be isolated from the rest of India. Immersed in a fantasy world of British high society the station itself is described as, "Provoking no emotion" and "Sensibly planned." This epitomises the logical mindset of the English, which deeply contrasts that of the spiritual Indian and highlights how even at a simple level of human understanding harmony is not possible between the two cultures creating the "Muddle" which is colonial India. Britain's attitude of imposing herself upon other nations, typical of this time period before partition, is something heavily attacked by Forster. Throughout the text he is seen to criticise England replicated in India because to him this is unnatural and false. During the entirety of this second section of the passage Forster adopts a tone of negativity towards the English. Their section of Chandrapore is described as, "Sharing nothing with the rest of the city except the overarching sky" conveying the way in which they consciously isolate themselves from the Indians. ...read more.

Conclusion

These fingers are the 'Marabar hills' and seem to point mysteriously towards the heavens above. The way in which they seem to separate themselves from their earthly surroundings suggests an equally unearthly presence about them. This of course will be proved true by the supernatural and inexplicable violation which Adela experiences within their walls. Dark and devoid of humanity they represent an aspect of India that the logical English will never be able to conquer. Therefore it is possible to conclude that the first Chapter of 'A Passage to India' can be regarded as a template for the novel as a whole. Almost all of Forster's overall concerns are indicated by its content and it is clear that the varied description of the Indian landscape comes to symbolise differences between those who inhabit the land. This disjointed construction of society will only increase as the novel progresses ultimately leading to the personal retreat of the novel's two main characters, Aziz and Fielding whom are unable to stand out as individuals and trapped within the confines of their own cultures. It will be only the deeply spiritual Godbole who is shown to have made any real progress via his own 'Passage to India' and of course Mrs. Moore, who despite her death becomes a symbol for hope by the way in which she is revered as a Hindu Goddess. ...read more.

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