• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Child Language Acquistion

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Many people are fascinated by how a child's language develops. A child has to not only acquire the vocabulary but have an understanding of phonology, grammar and pragmatics. How a child develops its language has been studied extensively. Imitation and reinforcement is a theory that a child acquires language by imitating the speech of others. It is also called the behaviourist theory. It is associated with B F Skinner (1957). Skinner argued that language was learned through the process of operant conditioning, a process of stimulus response where a result occurs as a consequence of actions and that the environment in which a child lives reinforces behaviour. A child speaks and they are rewarded by getting praise from their parents. Skinner suggests that the pre-linguistic stage of language when a baby cries with hunger or pain and then progresses to cooing which is reinforced by parents by a smile or attention. Albert Bandura (1963) also supported the belief of language development being based on observation and imitation by the child. De Villiers and De Villiers (1978) stated that at the babbling stage , babies produce every known phoneme that occurs in any human language and these sounds are narrowed down by parents to become the one word stage and progresses to two word utterances like "mummy gone" and so on. Criticisms however, are that if language was entirely dependant of parental reinforcement, there would be greater variation between individual children. Children also develop an understanding of grammar. ...read more.

Middle

.Children of a young age were baffled by this but children of 4 and 5 started to grasp this and stated "there are 2 wugs". This was the first proof that children extract generalized rules. Chomsky, a linguist from Philadelphia, argued that children have an innate ability to extract the rules of language they hear. He is perhaps the best known and influential linguist of the late 20th century. He suggests we are born with a set of rules about language already ingrained. He referred this to as "Universal Grammar" He claims this is the basis upon which all human languages are built. He called this innate structure, the Language Acquisition Device (LAD). Chomsky argues that all languages share the same deep structure; Subject, verb and object are common to all languages. Children have an innate awareness of the linguistic universals and this explains why children develop language so rapidly. Chomsky argues this is true as all children from different cultures pass through similar stages of development. Chomsky challenged Skinner's approach arguing that Skinner implies children learn entirely through trial and error and try out possible utterances and reject if not approved. Chomsky believed this is not possible to learn complex grammatical rules and an extensive vocabulary in the short space of time in which children develop language. Lunneburg (1967) also suggested in addition to Chomsky's theory, that there is a critical period hypothesis. He suggested the brain is designed to acquire language at a certain time (the first five years) ...read more.

Conclusion

Pavlov and Skinner were promoting ideas of classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Behaviorists believed that diary studies were incomparable as they wanted to generalize and discover the norm. Large sample studies were carried out for example Smith (1926) studied 124 between 2 and 5 years in one hour conversations. He noted the length of sentences and the general aspects of sentence development. Researcher s only looked for the desired features did not take into the rules that surround language acquisition. The accuracy of these reports was raised as they are in written form and there is no visual or audio evidence to back them up. There was also the effect of observers' paradox and the fact that an unusual environment and the presence of a stranger may have affected the children's speech. In the 1950's we saw the emergence of longitudinal sampling by linguists such as Braine (1963). A longitudinal study follows the same person over a long period of time. The advantage of such studies is it draws the positive features from the methodologies of diary studies and large sample studies. The research into child language is extremely difficult. Identifying and understanding when and why a child moves into another development is extremely tricky. Often a child may understand more than they can communicate to a parent or ever researchers. Any study, theory or piece of research has some validity. It is felt that all of the theories are possibly true, it seems apparent that a child may have innate ability to absorb language but also interaction with fellow humans is required. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating how language has changed in children's literature; in relation to interaction between ...

    5 star(s)

    The lack of Latinate vocabulary could be traced back to the intended audience in both these later texts (children from nine to thirteen years). By keeping the lexis relatively simple, the books are easily read by a much wider audience.

  2. Theories Of Language Development - Chomsky and Skinner

    For example, Braine observed a two year old with fourteen different vocabulary combinations, seven months later had two hundred and fifty thousand. * There is simply not enough time in life to hear and be directly reinforced for all the sentences we use.

  1. Critically evaluate one theory of language development. Chomsky argues that language is a formal ...

    Evidence for a biological approach to language development also comes from research by Eimass, Siqueland, Jusczyk and Vigorito, (1970 in Taylor, 1976) who showed that at the age of only 1 month infants can distinguish between different speech sounds. This suggests that basic capacities for communication and language are in place from a very young age.

  2. Investigation into Gender Differences in the Language of Personal Profiles on Dating Websites

    Religion: Christian / Other Smoke: No Way Drink: Social drinker, maybe one or two In my own words for fun: Horses, superbikes, skiing & flying. Theatre, cinema, concerts and nice restaraunts. favorite hot spots: Holiday venues preferred are the Indian Ocean and Caribbean.

  1. How does J.D Salinger explore the fall of innocence in "The Catcher In The ...

    gain the knowledge of sex attained in adulthood, he can save them from falling into adulthood. Holden's identity crisis is often compared to Huckleberry Finn. Similar in many ways they both represent naive adolescents. They comment on the problems of the society in which they live in.

  2. Centre Stage

    He always wanted more and more. He would take his weekly earnings and place numerous bets and use the majority of his earnings up. On a good week, he could come home with up to three times his earnings that he would generously divide and spend on his family.

  1. Commentary on Centre Stage

    He is very suggestive but never actually states anything. Throughout Joyce's short stories, he uses imagery to reflect how he feels about his mother country, Ireland during a time when Catholicism was largely influential throughout the country. Although I have not used actual names of places, roads, areas etc as Joyce does in his stories, in the opening paragraph

  2. The topic of religious language has many facets for exploration. The area of research ...

    The use of raised tone in line 13 for "workers (.h) and immediately then" is a tool for facilitating the continuity of the words. Without the tonal link, some of the meaning might be lost; by raising his tone for the end of one utterance and the beginning of another,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work