• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11

Discuss the significant differences between men's and women's talk - the way they interact, their choice of words and phrases and the topics they like to discuss.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Essay 2 Beginning with the role of compliments in female-male interaction by Janet Holmes in Reading B of Chapter 1 of your textbook Using English: from conversation to canon, discuss the significant differences between men's and women's talk - the way they interact, their choice of words and phrases and the topics they like to discuss. The linguist Halliday (1978) suggests that language has a dual function; it communicates ideational meaning, in terms of the information and ideas expressed, and it also communicates interpersonal meaning, expressing the degree of friendliness, or status difference between speakers. Since women and men occupy different subcultures, and subcultures are also differentiated according to how language is used, it is reasonable to say that the genders would exhibit distinctive language patterns. ( Maybin, Mercer, p5 ) Beginning with the work of Lakoff (1975), which documented that women and men communicate on the basis of languages which are differentiated according to gender. She suggests that women use more tag questions (eg. Isn't it? Don't you think? ) more indirect polite forms (eg. Could you please? ) more intensifiers (eg. Really ) and what she sees as generally weaker vocabulary ( eg. Words like lovely and Oh dear ). ...read more.

Middle

Tannen points out that men do " report-talk" and women do " rapport - talk". Women in most situations tends to be less competitive, more co-operative and work harder to make things run smoothly; for instance, encouraging others to talk and using more face-saving politeness strategies. (( Maybin, Mercer, p 19 ) This is supported further by Janet Holmes who characterized women's linguistic behaviour as affiliative, facilitative and co-operative. The fact that women give and receive many more compliments than men is consistent with the above research findings. ( Maybin, Mercer, p 20 ) Compliments are positive speech acts which are used to express friendship and increase rapport between people. A range of studies, involving American, British, Polish and New Zealand speakers, have demonstrated that compliments are used more frequently by women than by men, and that women are complimented more often than men ( Nessa Wolfson, 1983; Janet Holmes, 1988; Barbara Lewandowska- Tomaszczyk, 1989; Robert Herbert, 1990 ). Mostly these compliments refer to just a few broad topics: appearance ( especially, clothes and hair ) a good performance which is the result of skill or effort, possessions and some aspect of personality or friendliness. ( Joan Manes, 1983; Homes, 1986; Herbert 1990) ...read more.

Conclusion

Men gossip about others and do not reveal personal information about these people, but they talk about themselves without doing so. ( Lindsey, 1994, p 76) Levin and Arluke (1985) show that men gossip about distant acquaintances and celebrities while women gossip about close friends and family. Tannen ( 1990) suggest that revealing personal information is what cements friendships between females. Therefore telling secrets is evidence of friendship, especially for women. According to Arliss (1991: 50) review of research on what women and men talk about, several trends are clear. Men today report that women are a frequently discussed topic, whereas previously they talked about other men. Both men and women talk about work and sexual partners. To summarize, there is definitely significant evidence that women's speaking style in English differs from men. Women's talk involves more hesitations, indirectness, qualifiers, polite forms and tag questions and that in most situations they are less competitive, more co-operative and work harder to make things run smoothly. They are less control oriented, more concerned with 'connection' rather than status ( Philip Smith, 1985; Holmes 1990; Deborah Tannen, 1991 ) Some researchers relate this to women's inferior social position, having to play deference towards men and men's domination in cross gender talk through their control of the topic, interruptions and giving less feedback and support. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    describe the way english language stereotypes men and women

    3 star(s)

    The English language dictionary consists of man insulting words. When identifying the words it is easy to see that there are more insulting words for men than there are for women. However some of the words for men maybe seen as a compliment, such as stud or stallion.

  2. Investigation into Gender Differences in the Language of Personal Profiles on Dating Websites

    different women could be related to age, with younger women who have grown up considering themselves the equals of their male peers more confident about expressing themselves, and consequently making less use of hedges. To investigate this I have compared the mean number of hedges used in the profiles of

  1. Explain the difference between competence and performance and discuss whether this is something that ...

    study of Structural Linguistics, the fundamental consensus of which conceived that language consisted of two parts; 'Langue' (from 'tongue') and 'Parole' (from the French for 'word'). 'Langue' refers to language as a cohesive entity within a community of native speakers rather than the individual knowledge of the language utilised by each native speaker ('Parole').

  2. Turn taking mechanisms in conversation.

    Techniques for selecting next speakers can be complex and in this next section I have attempted to use the data to identify how TRPs are recognised by speakers. In transcript one the participants are questioning each other about their tastes in music.

  1. An investigation into the similarities and differences between written social interactions through the new ...

    clarification purposes - used a tenor of spoken English, but have also accompanied it with the standard grammatical construction required for writing, consequently it appears to be a lot closer to standard English than text A. From the inauguration of e-mail in 1965 until today, the diachronic change in the

  2. Refer closely to the literary and non-literary texts you have studied. Explore how gender ...

    Being a churchman has not spiritualised Mr Collins in the least; in fact he is a very wordy rector, completely engrossed by such matters as social rank, prestige, position, family connections and money. Far from being a dedicated Christian, he is a condescending character.

  1. Translation Studies

    Mounin feels that it is thanks to developments in contemporary linguistics that we can accept that: (1) Personal experience in its uniqueness is untranslatable. (2) In theory the base units of any two languages (e.g. phonemes, monemes, etc.)are not always comparable.

  2. Final Fantasy XIII Review

    The majority of the important words in this piece uses polysyllabic words, since it complements my model. Most of these words are superlatives, such as "best" to emphasise the point, and somewhat exaggerate the point of the texts. However, since Final Fantasy was a part of a series, I felt

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work