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Discuss Yeats presentation of how Ireland has changed in September 1913

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Discuss Yeats? presentation of how Ireland has changed in ?September 1913?. In your answer, explore the effects of language, imagery and verse form and consider how this poem relates to other poems by Yeats ?September 1913? reflects upon Yeats? distaste at the modern state of Ireland; the poet discusses his outrage at the fact that the Irish society has become one that is self-absorbed, and Yeats condemns the fact that Irish culture and art is no longer in the prime focus of society, instead lost to materialism and mundane routine. Yeats? initial gripe is revealed in the first line of the poem, where he questions Irish society ?What need you, being come to sense?; he sees the new modern society as one full of disappointment, and an apparent lack of purpose. He presents his views of disgust at the fact that society has being stagnated and its life force drained from it, ?you have dried the marrow from the bone?. Significantly Yeats puts the blame on the Irish themselves ? the first stanza takes on an accusatory tone in that the poet directly and repetitively refers to the people as ?You?. ...read more.


The ending lines end with the refrain ?Romantic Ireland?s dead and gone?, pointing at the apparent destruction of Irish culture. This is also portrayed in ?The Fisherman?, where Yeats similarly criticises ?the commonest ear? for ?[beating] down? Ireland?s ?great Art?. The poem also expresses Yeats? dismay at the fact that the new modern Ireland has failed to bring about any greater change; he can only allude to ?they? who ?were of a different kind?, in reference to the historical Irish nationalist figures who Yeats believes in this line to be more well-learned, especially in comparison to the current Irish nationalists such as in ?Easter 1916?, where he criticises Con Markievicz for staying ?in ignorant good will?. Yeats repetitively accuses modern society of failing to meet their grandeur, even though they had ?stilled? (their) childish play?; these great characters held influence previously and Yeats is dismayed that they no longer do so despite in his opinion deserving larger recognition from modern Ireland. Yeats contrasts these characters with the modern Ireland, noting that these figures had ?little time?to pray?, in comparison to the modern society who would offer ?prayer? to aid Ireland?s identity, yet lacking any real action. ...read more.


He alludes to ?the wild geese [spreading]?, a metaphor for Ireland?s previous will to intervene and fight in other countries for Irish interests, expressing remorse for the fact that Ireland has now become too self-absorbed; the final stanza assumes that modern Irish society would simply view these significant figures as being ?maddened? by ?some woman?s yellow hair?, in reference to their obsession with Irish culture. In this sense Yeats is critical that modern Ireland sees these important historical figures in this way, and responds curtly with ?let them be, they?re dead and gone?, in remorse of their sacrifice. The final refrain describes their passion as ?with O?Leary in the grave?, a finality which Yeats is deeply disappointed with, and Yeats? ?The Second Coming? also describes ?anarchy loosed? in society, and modern Ireland similar destroyed in this way. The mixed half rhyme scheme of the entire poem details Yeats? view that Ireland?s culture has been shattered and left in a confusing mess. Yeats describes his cynicism and disappointment with the new modern Ireland which he views as being too focused on the material aspect of life, failing to understand the significance of Irish culture and art form. Yeats criticises this very society as being responsible for the changes, the ?marrow? as the life force of Irish culture ?dried?. ...read more.

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