• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Distinguish between pidgins and creoles and explain how their distinctive grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary have emerged in different parts of the world due to the processes of colonialization.

Extracts from this document...


Essay 1 Distinguish between pidgins and creoles and explain how their distinctive grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary have emerged in different parts of the world due to the processes of colonialization. Support your answer with close reference to at least two case studies. A pidgin language is not the native language of anyone but is used as an auxiliary or supplemental language between two mutually unintelligible speech communities. It is essentially a simplified language derived from two or more languages - a contact language developed and used by people who do not share a common language in a given geographical area. It is characterized by limited vocabulary with a simple grammar enough to satisfy basic communication needs. Since they serve a single simplistic purpose, they usually die out. The oldest known pidgin is called 'Sabir' which was based on Mediterranean languages and used during the crusades in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries. ( ref : English - history, diversity and change chapt 5 p206) In the nineteenth century, when slaves from Africa were brought over to North America to work on the plantations, they were separated from the people of their community and mixed with people of various other communities, therefore they were unable to communicate with each other. In order to finally communicate with their peers on the plantations, and with their bosses, they needed to form a language in which they could communicate therefore creating a new language - pidgin. ...read more.


Here the main West African languages had a strong influence on the new forms of English which were spoken by the slaves. ( ref : English - history, diversity and change chapt 5 p 194) The long term effect of the slave trade on the development of the English language is great. It gave rise not only to black English in the United States which has been an important influence on the speech of young English speakers worldwide, but also led to the formation of English pidgins and creoles. ( ref : English - history, diversity and change chapt 5 p194-196) In contrast, a creole language is a pidgin that has developed and become the mother tongue for a community of people. It is marked by an expanded vocabulary and grammar structure that allow for communication as that of non-creole languages. Once a pidgin with its limited vocabulary and grammar is adapted and expanded and passed on the next generation to be used as a first language, it became a creole. The term creole has been traced to the Portuguese world crioulo: criado"raised" (as in a child). Originally the term referred to an African slave born in the New World and the meaning expanded to include Europeans born in the New World. An English creole is a language which is formed when an English pidgin becomes a first language and thus extended in the ways required by a native speaker to communicate in a wide variety of contexts. ...read more.


from kongo have all been found in Jamaican creole. The influence of the various major colonies could be seen in the Jamaican Creole which has words from Portuguese ( pikni, 'a small child'), Spanish (bobo, ' a fool' ), French (leginz, 'a bunch of vegetables for a stew'), Hindi (roti, "a kind of bread "), Chinese (ho senny ho, 'how's business?') and even Arawak, the language of the precolonial population who had been exterminated by the time English was spoken in Jamaica (hicatee, ' a land turtle', adopted via Spanish). The English element includes dialect words now scarcely heard in England ( for example, haggler, 'a market woman') An eighteenth- century account of Jamaican speech also notes the presence of nautical terms such as berth (office), store (warehouse), jacket (waistcoat), windward (east) and leeward (west), suggesting that the 'maritime' speech of English seamen (drawn from a mix of dialects of British English ) may have influenced the formation of an English-based pidgin (Bailey 1992, p 126) In conclusion, as seen by the two examples given ; colonization did play a part in the emergence of pidgins and creoles. Jamaica and North America are two case studies where a displaced population was replaced by people who spoke different languages, brought in initially as slaves and where communication between these people and English speakers resulted in the development of a pidgin language that subsequently creolized. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Language Aquisition Notes

    5 star(s)

    o Synthetic - break the sounds into syllables - there is a representation/action for each sound, too. For eg, S = weave hand in an s shape, like a snake, and say ssssss o Analytic - used in conjunction with other strategies, was the original method and doesn't break down words into such small units like synthetic.

  2. Why the Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588.

    The Armada was due to set sail on July 1st 1587 but in early April, Sir Francis Drake raided several costal towns in Spain, sinking 30 of the Armada's ships and destroyed supplies. This delayed the Armada by a year.

  1. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

    We should foster a positive understanding between cultures, through the discovery of a common heritage and shared values. We must seek what we have in common, namely, codes of understanding. We must learn how to form unity in plurality. At the same time, we must increase our sensitivity so as

  2. Phillip K dick - Imposter

    Similar to the previous quotation, a short simple sentence is used. In this context, it allows the passing of dead time in a concise manner. There is a distinct lack of metaphors or similes throughout the story and this sentence is a clear example.

  1. A close escape

    It's as though mother thinks she's Hitler, she loves the fact that she has 100% control over me. She doesn't know when to stop, it's like she's possessed. It's as though im a shadow, she can see me, but I don't exist.

  2. Eating Sugar

    It's the basic tool, for opening op the cultural box. If you travel in the big world, far away from home, feeling helpless, then you are probably facing a cultural problem. You don't understand why they do as they do?

  1. How does J.D Salinger explore the fall of innocence in "The Catcher In The ...

    Rather than seeing school as way force children into adult conformity, Antolini sees school as a place in which he can allow children to develop their own voices. The symbol of the red hunting hat is a significant symbol in "The Cather in the Rye."

  2. Philip K Dick Comparison

    under the influence of this empathy box to deal with her strong emotions about the apocalyptic ending to the earth. With this apocalyptic mood brings a number of moral issues rarely explored by other authors. An example of this would be whether or not non-human copies of humans could be

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work