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Distinguish between pidgins and creoles and explain how their distinctive grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary have emerged in different parts of the world due to the processes of colonialization.

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Introduction

Distinguish between pidgins and creoles and explain how their distinctive grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary have emerged in different parts of the world due to the processes of colonialization. Support your answer with close reference to at least two case studies. At the end of the sixteenth century, European expansion and colonization was a primary catalyst for many of the pidgins and creoles known today. By these we understand that European powers came up strong during this period and for economic and political reasons there began the Europe-wide phenomenon. With colonization, came many reactions e.g. nationalist reactions and linguistic consequences such as dialect levelling and focusing and also the beginnings of the pidgin language. One such area that was colonised by Britain was West Africa. The birthing of the pidgin language was marked by the beginning of the slave trade in Sierra Leone. Slaves from different places were caught and put together in different places. Coming from different backgrounds there was no shared lingua franca among them. The slaves were ingenious enough to create a make-shift language to facilitate interaction and communication after a few months of being together. ...read more.

Middle

and yufala (plural 'you all'). Here we see that although simplification makes a language simpler than another in some aspects, it makes it more complex in others. The case study also shows the functional use of a pidgin language. Bislama almost borders on being a creole in the aspect of functional usage, except it is not being communicated as the mother tongue of the people of Vanuatu. It is used in many areas of life such as the mass media, in the government and also in Bible translations. Another type of expansion of Bislama is grammatical expansion. Substrate influence is when substrate languages - the mother tongue of the pidgin's speakers, act also as a source for grammatical expansion. The pronoun systems of most of the substrate languages belonging to the Oceanian subgroup of the 'Austronesian' family, make the same distinctions in inclusiveness and number as in Bislama. (Siegel 2002, pp.10) This is one way how colonization have influenced the some part of the grammar system of a pidgin language. I will proceed to examine case study two which is on Audiocassette 1, Band 6 on Guyanese Creole and the associated notes in Study Guide 1 to see how pronunciation and vocabulary in this creole language is particularly linked to colonization. ...read more.

Conclusion

English is therefore the lexifer language for Guyanese Creole. I suspect too that de-creolization has and is taking place. Romaine (1992) says that it is a further development in which a creole gradually converges with it's lexifer language and moves towards standard English (in the case of Guyanese Creole). Reading this two extracts of Irene's and Mother's speech and examining the vocabulary, the origins of the language is almost obscured. A few exceptions whereby words are foreign to the English-educated would be e.g. 'skiwb' or 'firecracker' (line 1329) and 'jumbie' (in the heading of the extract of Irene's speech). We have seen examples of distinctions in pidgin and creole grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. From my analysis of the case studies, I also note some relation between status and social identity with the development of his linguistic phenomenon. The area of implementation in standardization creates a pressure for people to learn a functional language quickly. The obvious social and status difference in the foreigners who introduced the influence of their language could also be a factor in the spread of pidgin and creole, creating an artificial need to fit in. On the flipside in today's world, we sometimes associate language with obvious relations to creole e.g. Black English with inferiority and the lack of proper education and this brings us to another paradigm in itself. ...read more.

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