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Dysarthria and Aphasia.

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Introduction

Running Head: DYSARTHRIA AND APHASIA Dysarthria and Aphasia [Name of the Author] [Name of the Institution] Dysarthria and Aphasia Dysarthria Definition Dysarthrias or commonly known as Dysarthria, refers to a group of speech problems where sounds may be slurred, and speech may be slow or effortful. Noticeable changes in pitch, volume, and tempo of speech occur. Speech can become nasal, and the voice can sound either breathy or harsh. Dysarthria occurs in both children and adults. Yorkston, Strand, Miller, Hillel, and Smith (1993) found reduction in speaking rate to be the strongest predictor of decrease in speech intelligibility. Etiology Dysarthria is related to neuromuscular diseases such as cerebral palsy, Parkinson's, Lou Gehrig's disease, or later stages of multiple sclerosis. It can also occur from stroke, brain injury, and tumors. The exact speech problem that occurs depends on the part of the nervous system that is affected. Degenerative disease due to the effects of upper and lower motor neuron changes; the speech of individuals with ALS is classified as mixed (spastic and flaccid) dysarthria (Duffy, 1995). A number of subsystems must work together, for speech to be clear. A weakness in any of the systems or lack of coordination between systems can result in dysarthria. If the respiratory subsystem is fragile, then speech may be quiet and formed one word at a time. If the laryngeal system is weak, speech may be breathy, too quiet and slow. ...read more.

Middle

"You would like a...?" with rising inflection, or "What would you like?" If a person is using an augmentative device, consider it to be valid and equal to speech. Do not insist that they "say it" if you have understood the message they sent by the augmentative system. If there is weakness of speech muscles, the speech-language pathologist teaches speech more intelligible to compensate for the muscle weakness. Aphasia Definition Aphasia is a language disorder that results from damage to the section of the brain that is responsible for language. For most people, these are parts of the left side (hemisphere) of the brain. Aphasia usually occurs abruptly, frequently as the result of a stroke or head injury, but it may also expand slowly, as in the case of a brain tumor. The disorder damages the expression and understanding of language as well as reading and writing. Aphasia may occur with speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which also result from brain damage. Anyone can get aphasia, but most people who have aphasia are in their middle to late years. Men and women are equally affected. Etiology Mostly, the cause of the brain injury is a stroke. When, for some reason, blood is unable to reach a part of the brain, a stroke occurs. Other causes of brain injury are severe blows to the head, brain tumors, brain infections, and other conditions of the brain. ...read more.

Conclusion

These exercises differ depending on personal needs, and become more multifaceted and demanding as ability improves. The speech-language pathologist teaches the person ways to make use of stronger language skills to make up for weaker language skills. For example, some people may find it easier to express their ideas through gestures and writing than with speaking. The speech-language pathologist may teach this person to use both writing and gestures to help remember words for conversation. The person may take part in group therapy sessions to practice conversational abilities with other persons with aphasia. Group members may role-play common communication circumstances that take place in the community and at home, such as talking on the telephone, ordering a meal in a restaurant, and talking to a salesperson at a store. In due course, persons may participate in individual or group outings to practice their use of communication approach in real life situations. They are asked to plan, organize, and carry out these trips using the compensatory strategies they have learned. For example, group members may practice functional reading and writing skills by using a telephone book to find the phone number of a restaurant and write it down Later on in recovery, the speech-language pathologist may work with a vocational specialist to help the person return to work or school, if suitable. The speech-language pathologist works with employers and/or educational specialists to apply the use of compensatory strategies in these settings. This professional may work with them to alter work/school environment to meet language needs. ...read more.

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