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Haiku is a small poetry with oriental metric that appeared in the XVI century and is being very popular mainly in Japan.

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Introduction

HAIKU Haiku is a small poetry with oriental metric that appeared in the XVI century and is being very popular mainly in Japan. It's been disseminating in all around the world during this century. It have an old and long story that reminds the spiritualist philosophy and the Taoist simbolism of the oriental mistics and Zen-Buddhist masters who express much of their thoughts in form of miths, simbols, paradoxes and poetic images like the Haiku. It's done to transcend the limitation imposed by the usual language and the linear/scientific thinking that treat the nature and the human being as a machine.It's a contemplative poetry that valorizes nature, color, season, contrasts and surprises. Usually it has 3 lines and 17 syllabes distributed in 5, 7 and 5. It must register or indicate a moment, sensation, impression or drama of a specific fact of nature. It's almost like a photo of some specific moment of nature.More than inspiration, it's need meditation, effort and perception to compose a real Haiku. Haiku is one of the most important forms of traditional Japanese poetry.Haiku is a very short poetic form. Traditional Japanese haiku consisted of three lines of 5, 7, and 5 units each, which are generally applied as syllables, and contained a special word-the kigo-that indicated the season in which the haiku was set. Some consider that a haiku must also combine two different images, be written in present tense, have a focus on description and have a pause (the kireji or "cutting word") at the end of either the first or second line. All such rules are based in the Japanese language and literary tradition and are habitually broken by most poets, especially when adapted for languages other than Japanese (where they can seem arbitrary). Few modern English haiku poets use the 5-7-5 syllables rule, which is often taught in schools. The 5-7-5 practice produces a haiku much longer than a traditionally composed haiku in Japanese, as the Japanese do not count syllables as they are defined in English, but instead count morae (singular mora), units of time. ...read more.

Middle

At this time, it does not include all the Rubaiyat, though a significant proportion. For the benefit of the non-Farsi speaking reader, I have included two translations. One is as a literal translation, with the aim of conveying the wording of the original poetry, leaving it to the reader to draw his/her own conclusions. And another is a "meaning" translation, with the intention of conveying the spirit of the poetry to the reader, (at least as understood by this author.) On every page, a number of the Rubaiyat (quatrains) appear, which are clearly separated from each other. For each quatrain, there is a Farsi (original Persian text), Which generally appears on the right. This is presented in pictorial format Literal:This is a literal English translation (in quatrain form) with the intention of staying as close to the original text as possible. Meaning:This is a free translation (again in poetic form, mainly quatrain, though not always so), with the objective of conveying the intended meaning. Fitzgerald:This is the corresponding translation of the Rubaiyat by Edward J. Fitzgerald (1859). Literal: The palace where Jamshid held his cup The doe and the fox now rest and sup Bahram who hunted game non-stop Was hunted by death when his time was up. Meaning: The palace where Arthur sought the Grail Is the resting home of the weak and frail And the knight who challenged death on its trail On the ocean of death forward must sail Chasing the temporal is to no avail As soon as you go through death's dark veil. Fitzgerald: They say the Lion and the Lizard keep The Courts where Jamshyd gloried and drank deep: And Bahram, that great Hunter--the Wild Ass Stamps o'er his Head, and he lies fast asleep. SONNET A Guide to the Sonnet A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter with a carefully patterned rhyme scheme. Other strict, short poetic forms occur in English poetry (the sestina, the villanelle, and the haiku, for example), but none has been used so successfully by so many different poets. ...read more.

Conclusion

in which the rhyme scheme is a-b-a-b, b-c-b-c, c-d-c-d, e-e. This example is taken from Amoretti: Happy ye leaves! whenas those lily hand Happy ye leaves! whenas those lily hands, Which hold my life in their dead doing might, Shall handle you, and hold in love's soft bands, Like captives trembling at the victor's sight. And happy lines! on which, with starry light, Those lamping eyes will deign sometimes to look, And read the sorrows of my dying sprite, Written with tears in heart's close bleeding book. And happy rhymes! bathed in the sacred brook Of Helicon, whence she derived is, When ye behold that angel's blessed look, My soul's long lacked food, my heaven's bliss. Leaves, lines, and rhymes seek her to please alone, Whom if ye please, I care for other none. The Modern Sonnet As mentioned earlier, many English poets have used the sonnet form to great effect. The sonnet also became popular in French poetry, with even such avant garde figures as Arthur Rimbaud and St�phane Mallarm� writing sonnets. With the advent of free verse, the sonnet came to be seen as somewhat old-fashioned and fell out of use for a time among some schools of poets. However, a number of 20th century poets, including John Berryman and Seamus Heaney, rose to the challenge of reinvigorating the form successfully. There were also many renowned poets who wrote sonnets throughout the 20th century, such as Edna St. Vincent Millay and Pablo Neruda. The 21st century has seen a strong resurgence of the sonnet form, as there are many sonnets now appearing in print and on the Internet. Richard Vallance publishes a Canadian E-Zine, SONNETTO POESIA ISSN 1705-4524, dedicated to the sonnet, villanelle and quatrain forms, while Sara Russell is the Editor of the UK E-Zine, Poetry Life and Times, where she publishes hundreds of sonnets. Richard Vallance, who is the Editor for rhymed verse for Poetry Life & Times, also authors the monthly Vallance Review on historical and contemporary sonneteers. ...read more.

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