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AS and A Level: Arthur Miller
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- Peer Reviewed essays 3
Firstly, a tragic hero should have a "magnitude or nobility"5 about them. At first glance this would seemingly exclude Willy from the status, however according to Hardison, "noble" does not necessarily imply a high social status, but rather a "larger than life"6 quality. The fact that Willy's visions are of such a great grandeur, especially where his sons are concerned, ("You guys together could absolutely lick the civilised world.") along with the constant gesticulations that accompany his exclamations, all support the idea that Willy Loman is indeed a "larger than life" character.
- Word count: 1832
Willy Loman is a struggling salesman around the age of sixty. He lives with his wife Linda and two sons Biff and Happy. Willy does not fit the usual criteria established by Shakespearean or Aristotelian tragedies. Firstly, he is not of noble birth, although in the play Miller makes a link known to the audience because Willy is made to appear of noble birth as he is in fact referred to as, "a prince", by his son. Miller commented, "I believe that the common man is as apt a subject for tragedy in its highest sense as kings were".2 This gives us clear insight why Willy is still a tragic hero even if he is not of high social ranking or status.
- Word count: 1625
Whilst Milton would have deplored this "introducing of trivial and vulgar persons [into tragedy]", Miller dismissed all criticism of his choice of hero, demanding his accusers to recognise "it matters not whether the hero falls from a great height or a small one", or as Linda puts it, "he's not the finest character who ever lived. But he's a human being and a terrible thing is happening to him" the importance then, lies in the way and reason for which the character falls.
- Word count: 1904
But how do these apply in Miller's Death of a Salesman? Willy takes success very seriously, he needs to be seen as successful and liked (by everyone) in order to secure his dignity. Willy strongly believes in the American Dream, he has worked hard all his life as a salesman and as such, he believes that he deserved, owed, this fortune and success because of the "thirty-four years" he has put into the sales firm. But his position in the company is increasingly low, he works without salary on commission only - as if he was just starting out.
- Word count: 1915
This builds anxiety as we enquire as to why this is the view held of these people and we notice the oppressive nature of the town. To the reader "the necessity of the Devil may become evident as a weapon" due to the fact that as long as this belief in Lucifer exists, the people will never be free to speak their minds and this undertone of claustrophobia and emptiness will always exist. Furthermore, it appears Salem is so inherently religious that the people are blinded by their own "parochial snobbery" and instead of modernising, they focus only on paying "homage to God".
- Word count: 1437
However, from the moment Elizabeth Proctor is mentioned we see her personality transform into that of a headstrong young woman, arguing back with a concerned anger: "Do you begrudge my bed, uncle?" and reducing Parris to few words. This transformation is a clear example of how when placed under scrutiny or pressure Abigail is able to manipulate those around her to free herself from the situation - a highly critical aspect of her wider character. Furthermore, Abigail is able to alter her personality to that of a charmer when in the presence of John Proctor, of whom she has a "concentrated desire" for.
- Word count: 1770
Crucible craetive ewrting and commentary. Through this dialogue I wanted to portray how powerful Abigail has become.
He will always love goody Proctor. [Stands up to tell her] He will never love you! I won't have anything to do with this your outrageous! [Mary is taken back by what she has just said.] It's like you've signed your name the devils black book, you're a complete disgrace Abigail! Abigail: I need you to help me do you understand Mary? Mary: Abigail I'll have naught to do with it goody Proctor will hang for this. Abigail: I'm not sure that's wise thinking Mary the courts treat me like a saint.
- Word count: 1442
It has been argued that the main concern of "Death of a Salesman" is to study the ways in which the flaws of one generation are imprinted on the next. How far do you agree?
"I'm afraid I'm not teaching them the right kind of - Ben, how should I teach them?" This would explain why Willy asks Ben for advice on his sons, because he believes that Ben had the upbringing he wanted to have and so was never able to pass on anything good to his sons. Willy should have asked Charlie for advice, this is because Charlie was always supportive of Willy and brought up his son to be a success. Both Willy and Biff reject help from Charlie and Bernard, when ultimately what they both offered Willy and Biff could have changed the entire course of the play if they'd accepted it.
- Word count: 1263
How does Millers handling of time and memory add to our understanding of tragedy within Death of a Salesman?
However, even within this ordered dream world, Bernard pops the bubble in which order was maintained, as he asks Biff to 'study'. The use of the word 'anaemic' is interesting, as it can mean a lack of colour on the skin. Perhaps Miller is saying how Bernard doesn't fit into Willy's category of 'normal', as normal means you have to be 'well liked', something that Willy maintained which ultimately lead up to his demise. We see in this mobile concurrency how Willy is trying to maintain order by 'dreaming' yet this order subtly becomes disorder as the world doesn't exist as a 'floating balloon', there needs to be someone to anchor us, and in this case, it is Bernard.
- Word count: 1624
Millers writing style in The Crucible portrays a story of suspense, action, and also an array of different writing techniques to maintain the readers interest.
This tragic flaw gives the reader the impression of Proctor being a lecher and a cheat. But when Proctor is sentenced to hang for being accused of witchcraft, his 'Tragic Hero' role is exhibited again. Proctor's refusal to sign the written confession provided by Deputy Governor Danforth and his colleague, Judge Hawthorne, unveils his heroism once more as he knows he will confront death. Proctor's reasoning for choosing death over confessing to a lie was to protect his name, and his family's reputation. "It is my name! I cannot have another in my life! I am not worth the dust on the feet of them that hang...I have given you my soul; leave me my name!"
- Word count: 1059
From his perspective, he remembers feeling powerful, positive, optimistic, heroic. Not only that, but Biff has just been made captain of his football team and for Willy this is a great landmark of success and prosperity and indeed represents a bright future for all of them. Is this a flashback of something as it actually happened in the past? � Not completely. The audience is observing the events as Willy remembers them (inside his head!!) It's an idealised memory - probably embellished somewhat by Willy's tenacious grip, belief in the American Dream.
- Word count: 1795
� Happy - Yeh, that was my first time - I think. Boy, there was a pig! They laugh, almost crudely You taught me everything I know about women. Don't forget that. � Happy is cruel and shows great disrespect for women. His female conquests merely satisfy his own vanity. He has lived in Biff's shadow all his life and now he compensates by nurturing his relentless sex drive and professional ambition. His father does nothing to show him he is important, so Happy relies on his own sense of self-importance to fuel his over-confidence. This represents Willy's own over-inflated ego just witnessed in the scene before - 'I'm vital in New England', 'I'd a been in charge of New York by now!'
- Word count: 1211
There is too little to admire in Eddie Carbone for him to be seen as a tragic hero. Discuss this view.
This demonstrates that Eddie believes in the idea of family, rather than the idea of just helping biological family. Eddie is devoted also in the sense that he has always supported his family and always will; he states 'I supported [them] this long I support [them] a little more'. Eddie's devotion is a fundamental aspect of the Italian honour code, which shows Eddie to be a man of family honour and loyalty. Miller establishes Eddie to be a strong upholder of these values early on in the play through Eddie's telling of Vinny Bolzano's family betrayal to Catherine; asserting the moral that 'you can quicker get back a million dollars that was stole than a word that you gave away'.
- Word count: 1650
Abigail Williams is a girl of tentative morals because of the traits she demonstrates throughout the play. To be exact, Abigail behaves in ways that didn't happen to be acceptable in the society. We are first introduced to Abigail Williams in Act one when she informs her uncle, the reverend Parris that a lady known as Susanna was there to see him to discuss Parris' niece, Betty's "ailment". Abigail is questioned about the dance that she and a few other girls in the town were involved in. She is quick at an attempt to defend herself when she says "Uncle, we did dance...But they're speakin' of witchcraft.
- Word count: 1652
Death of a Salesman. The plays author, Arthur Miller, gradually exposes tragedy throughout the play like a drip feed.
Linda then goes on to calculate his commission and breaks down his lies, like acid, until finally concluding the truth, 'Well, it makes seventy dollars and some pennies.' In some ways this makes us feel pathos for Willy as he has to lie about how much he has earned, something that the ordinary man may be able to relate to, and his pride is shattered in the process. The contrast of the vocabulary used by Willy and Linda, he says 'hundred' and 'gross' where she says 'pennies', helps to reinforce the pathos felt for Willy by distinguishing fantasy from reality.
- Word count: 1222
However underneath lies the hidden truth, the society is "rotten". This can be shown by the girls being caught in the forest: "Now look you. All of you. We danced" This conveys that the people of Salem do not follow the laws completely but rebel in secret as dancing and going into the forest is seen as the devils work. This also shows Abigail giving orders to the other girls. These actions conflict with their laws and in addition to this many of the citizens are selfish including those who themselves should be setting an example.
- Word count: 1871
We are first made aware of this as word of the group of girls spreads and Proctor is inside Reverend Parris' house to converse on the matter. Also present is Thomas Putnam; together Parris and Putnam try to twist this gossip to their advantage but Proctor is against them: "you cannot command Mr Parris. We vote by name in this society, not by acreage." This clearly shows Proctor's first opposition against Putnam as Putnam is trying to give both Proctor and Parris advice on how to handle the situation at hand.
- Word count: 1460
In the introduction of the play, Miller proves to his audience that dreaming is evident in Death of a Salesman. "An air of the dream clings to the place, a dream rising out of reality". By using the phrase "rising out" this indicates that this dream is a way of escaping, this sets the scene and tone of the whole play and how Willy is in a constant dream, unable to acknowledge the reality of his existence. The structure of the play is constructed like a stream of consciousness throughout, adding to the overall theme.
- Word count: 1070
However, when we consider Willy Loman and family, in terms of the society they were living in, they were of relatively high standing - Willy had a job, whilst many were unemployed. Biff had a potential sports scholarship. Considering Willy's position from these two different angles, makes it hard to determine if he had much to lose, when his fortune reversed. He had little material wealth to lose, but in terms of personal loss, there is potential for suffering. The play doesn't include many characters outside the family, which makes Willy Loman a very central figure in his very small society (his family).
- Word count: 1442
Death of a Salesman Discuss the significance of the flashbacks. Why are they included and what do we learn about the characters?
Throughout the flashbacks we see that Willy most refers to Biff and the times he has had with Biff. We do not know why this is, but it is probably because of the current situation that Biff and his father are going through. Biff and his fathers relationship used to be good because Biff was the well liked one in school and was always succeeding. Due to a occurrence, Biff's personality changed and he lost all of his confidence. He started looking for jobs and ended up working on over twenty jobs, which he did not stick too. He then ended up working on a farm and his dead detested this.
- Word count: 1299
Death of a Salesman. The effect of Millers presentation of Linda helps to carry off the nature of tragedy, and without her the play would not work.
However she is much more than a "typical" housewife. Linda is undoubtedly the strongest character in the play, "she has developed an iron repression of her exceptions to Willy's behaviour" this remarkable power reveals, to the reader, her un-yielding strength and determination which never falters throughout the development of the play. Linda is a very headstrong person who plays a critical role in the family dynamics, she knows from the very start of the play that Willy is trying to kill himself and that it was "only the shallowness of the water" that saved him from his first suicide attempt.
- Word count: 1718
This extract from A view from the bridge by Arthur Miller is just after Catherine and Rodolfo are left alone at home, In this scene Eddies worst nightmare is realized when he sees both of them together coming from the bedroom.
Miller uses the stage directions and dialogues to convey Eddie's unstable state of mind which creates tension and leads to the climax of the conflict. Eddie enters the apartment 'unsteady, drunk' showing that he has been drinking as he takes out the bottles of 'whiskey' which conveys that he is unstable and foreshadows potential for conflict. Tension is built up by his impatience and constant calling for 'Beatrice' which again emphasizes his drunkenness. The audience senses a rise in tension from Eddie's unstable mind and his 'unsteady' movements which makes then worry for Catherine and Rodolfo as 'it is the first time they've been alone'.
- Word count: 1083
Attention. Attention must be paid! How far do you agree with Lindas view that Willy Loman is a significant tragic figure?
But at the time this story is taking place in the 1940's and 50's, with the nuclear family and its patriarchal all powerful father very much the norm, someone like Loman would have been seen as a failure, as how could the father fail to provide for his wife and children? His wife however stays devoted to him, and during an argument with Biff and Happy, she protests to her son's accusations with an outburst where she lists reasons why Willy deserves to be held in better judgement.
- Word count: 1560
The hero may learn something from his mistake but often too late. It has been argued that "the tragic mode is archaic, fit only for the very highly placed, the kings or the kingly". I agree with this view to some extent but believe that the tragic hero can be brought into a modern context effectively. Archaic can be defined as ancient and belonging to a past time period, this may be true for the traditional noble tragic hero. However I think a modern tragic hero could be the equivalent of "noble" in some other way.
- Word count: 1042
To What Extent Does Death of a Salesman deal with modern issues such as materialism, consumerism, procrastination and alienation, in Act 1 of the play?
For example, he says 'If I'd gone with him to Alaska that time, everything would've been totally different." Willy wanted to live the original concept of the 'American Dream', in which the two visions of living close to nature in the 'great outdoors', and using nothing but what you were born with - your personality - to make your fortune in the role of the salesman, were combined to form the image of the pioneer. Willy however rejected his desires to work outdoors and pursue carpentry, so he could seek wealth in the city, revealing his materialistic and unbalanced interpretation of how to accomplish the 'American Dream'.
- Word count: 1667