• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How does Michael Frayn present the relationship between Stephen Wheatley and Keith Hayward?

Extracts from this document...


SPIES How does Michael Frayn present the relationship between Stephen Wheatley and Keith Hayward? The way Michael Frayn presents the relationship between Stephen Wheatley and Keith Hayward changes throughout the novel. Towards the beginning of the play the two boys are good friends, but Keith is the leader and Stephen is the led. There is a big difference in the social status of the two boys. Keith goes to the 'right local preparatory school' and wears yellow and black which are the 'right' colours whereas Stephen wears green and black and goes to the 'wrong' school. The difference in Keith and Stephen's social status reflects on their relationship. 'He was the officer corps in our two man army. I was the other ranks- and grateful to be so. This shows that Stephen understands the difference between him and his friend and he is satisfied with this position. Stephen is allowed to go to Keith's house but the Haywards do not treat him as well as they could and this could be because Stephen and his family have a low status in the close and are not respected as much. ...read more.


This shows that Stephen looks up to the Haywards and almost envies them. He feels that they are the perfect family and longs to be like them. Here Michael Frayn is showing the nature of perception, how a child views things. The truth about the Haywards is that Keith's father is a rigid, cold taskmaster who beats Keith with a cane and Keith's mother conceals s secret, but not the one the boys suspect. The theme of dominance and bullying is clearly presented in the play by Stephen and Keith's relationship. Keith bullies Stephen and Stephen feels so worthless that he allows Keith to bully him. When Stephen is 'bored' of the game he shows that he is sick of being 'bossed around all the time.' The theme of bullying is presented in the novel again when Keith cuts Stephen's throat. This shows that Keith has turned out to be like his father who also used the same method of torture with Keith's mother that is why 'in the heat ...read more.


He appeared really different and Stephen almost feared him, knowing what was to come. The punishment of breaking the oath. Stephen feels that Keith has changed. 'His eyes look into mine. They're the eyes of a stranger.' It is at this point when the relationship between the two boys ends. All those games, the lemon barley and chocolate spread was no more. The style that Frayn uses is that he respects the young Stephen's point of view, without claiming authority over it. He uses the third person to explain aspects of the novel. From which the young Stephen cannot explain at that point. The sense of smell, the taste of lemon barely, the taste of the chocolate spread is a style that Frayn uses to recreate the memory and make it real. Frayn never reveals Stephens age, to allow the reader to predict the age of Stephen based on Stephens ignorance. All these techniques help Frayn present the relationship between Keith and Stephen clearly and effectively. ?? ?? ?? ?? Wafia pervez ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level James Joyce section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level James Joyce essays

  1. How Effectively Does Frayn Use Barbara Berrill in 'Spies'?

    I also think that the use of humour between them is particularly prominent at the beginning when they are first together as it really again emphasises Stephen's immaturity and childishness in what he says. Interestingly it also manages to put Barbara across as rather childish with her lines, such as

  2. Examine the presentation of the relationship between Keith and Stephen in Spies

    Unlike the "terrible connectedness" of his own semidetached house Keith's house stands on its own. Stephen describes, in great detail, the "ethereal" qualities of Keith's house. The smell in Keith's toy room is a "rightful" scent; everything in Keith's house seems "right".

  1. Analyse the ways in which Frayn presents the relationship between Stephen and Keith in ...

    Stephen and Keith are presented as two children enjoying the imaginary games of childhood together.

  2. Explore the relationship between Paul Morel and his mother.

    her warmth inside him like strength...From his mother he drew the life warmth, the strength to produce..." On the brink of death, Paul is given a strange almost passionate strength by his mother's constant presence next to his bedside. This is shortly after William's death when Mrs.

  1. Discuss the importance and presentation of Mr Hayward in Michael Frayn's Spies

    It is refreshing for the reader to witness Stephen's apparent reversal in his feelings toward Mr Hayward, and this strengthens or perhaps even propels his later feelings towards his own father in whom he discovers a 'tenderness' he 'can't remember in him before'.

  2. Analyse how Frayn presents relationships between adults and children in Spies

    Even as he is terrified of Mr. Hayward, he notices the man's awkwardness and uncertainty-Stephen is not part of the family, and he is unsure how to dominate him. He knows that Mr. Hayward can't touch him, as he is someone else's child and propriety does not allow him to hurt Stephen .But he is disarmed by Mr.

  1. Stephenss relationship with the Haywards has varied throughout the novel Spies

    Stephen thinks that Keith and himself are not going to be friends anymore "Keith isn't going to come" but Stephen was wrong and when he sees Keith in the "lookout" Keith becomes violent.

  2. Spies. How does Frayn display Stephen and Keiths relationship at the start of ...

    instead of when he saw just himself suggests that Keith is what he remember mores about from his childhood than himself. This can also show adult Stephen's loathing of the child he once was. After those paragraphs, two more important paragraphs reveal even more information about Stephen and Keith's relationship together in their childhood.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work