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How does the presentation of the demise of Ireland differ in Friels plays Translations and Making History? You should pay particular attention to form, structure and language.

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How does the presentation of the demise of Ireland differ in Friel's plays Translations and Making History? You should pay particular attention to form, structure and language. ---- Friel's presentation of the demise of Ireland differs in responsibility and blame, but can be similar in reasons for the demise. However, even common themes have minor differences when examined in form, structure and language. Friel examples his views on why Ireland fell to the English in the respective time periods of both plays via the characters. For example, in Making History, Friel blasts O'Neill's ineptitude, with Jimmy Jack praised in Translations: "Harry: A letter from the Lord Deputy- / O'Neill: They really transform the room" O'Neill is more concerned with Spanish broom than matters with the English, symbolising how he is focused on nurturing Spain as opposed to his own people. This astounding care for appearance of the room also symbolises his preference to further his own status, exampled by his "dilemma". Contextually, the Spanish were enemies of the protestant English during the 16th Century, and thus Friel is communicating the ineptitude of O'Neill, who was more concerned about himself, as well as relations with Spain than his own people and struggle. ...read more.


nations" is beyond reality, and this use of religion in bringing people together is similar to Catholicism bringing Ireland and Spain together in Making History, suggesting that a lack of a unified European religion is to blame for Ireland's downfall in both instances. The caesura puts emphasis on "should the fates perchance" with "perchance" communicating rarity. However, Making History blames individual heroism in Making History, with O'Neill stating: "That's why the great O'Neill is here - at rest - here - in Rome. Because we ran away" repetition of "here" in reference to Rome, the home of the Vatican, aided by caesuras and the sentence ending with Rome, emphasises how Ireland has been deserted by Catholicism, contextually aided by the treaty between England and Spain. Sarcasm is used in "great O'Neill" to mock the concept of his heroism being thrown forward by Lombard to be historical. The words coming directly from O'Neill emphasises this. Furthermore, there is a structural similarity in that both of these historically-minded quotes feature at the end of their respective plays, finality emphasising Friel's suggestions, as well as symbolising the prior events being a reflection of history. ...read more.


However, later: "Maire: Will you, Master? I must learn it. I need to learn it." Maire demonstrating a need to learn English emphasises that she never truly understood it in the first place. Thus, Friel criticises "cross-fertilisation" and how it makes Ireland weep by highlighting the tragic ineptitude of partners in both plays, but in Making History this is done through a downfall, as opposed to the sheer misconceptions in Translations. There is similarity in how Friel presents the idea of class dominance as a motive for domination of Ireland in both plays. It is important to note that Translations occurred in the early 20thCentury, and as Kieran Flanagan's critique of Friel mentions: "Ireland in the nineteenth century became a social laboratory for modernisation, for bureaucratic experimentation in a vast range of areas, such as lunacy, Poor Law, education, and the census, to name a few, when similar forms of state intervention were more restricted in English society. Ballybeg was to become the victim of these endeavours to bureaucratise and to re-order the cultural landscape." The bureaucracy seeping into rural Ireland is evidenced by Doalty: "Prodding every inch of the ground in front of them with their bayonets and scattering animals and hens in all directions!" The use of bayonets, tools, examples modernisation, with the verb "prodding" communicating its forceful nature. ...read more.

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