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In August 1914 Great Britain declared war on Germany. The war started because many European countries hated each other.

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Introduction

WORLD WAR ONE HOW IT ALL BEGAN: In August 1914 Great Britain declared war on Germany. The war started because many European countries hated each other. In 1870 there was a war between France and Germany. Germany won and took Alsace and Loraine from France. The French were angry and decieded to take them back. Turkey was growing weaker and so Russia were hoping they might be able to take Constantinople. Austria-Hungary was a friend with Turkey and so they didn't want Russia to take Constantinople. This meant that Austria-Hungary and Russia were enemys. This meant that some countries were friends like France and Russia, also like Austria-Hungary and Germany. Britain had grown to dislike Germany because the ruler of Germany was very jealous of the British Empire. Germany also had a very powerful fleet of warships, which might have been able to beat the Royal Navy. The war started because the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated in June of 1914. Austria-Hungary thought Serbia had arranged this so they attacked Serbia. Russia was a friend with Serbia so they helped to defend. Germany then had to help Austria-Hungary. France was a friend with Russia so they joined in. Britain joined in because a long time ago Britain had promised to defend Belgium if they were attacked. The German army had to go through Belgium to attack France. The English asked Germany to leave Belgium alone but as they did not England declared war on Germany. A QUICK HISTORY OF WORLD WAR ONE: World war one lasted from 1914-1918. It was fought between the Allied Forces: Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and Serbia against the Central Powers: Germany, the Austro-Hungarian empire, Ottoman Turkey, and Bulgaria. Italy in 1915, Portugal and Romania in 1916 and the USA and Greece in 1917 joined the Allied Forces during the course of the war. On the Western Front fighting was mainly by trench warfare, with both sides believing that the side with the largest army would eventually win despite the other army having the better defense. ...read more.

Middle

Several of our men were awakened to find a rat snuggling down under the blanket alongside them.' Most soldiers got lice because they often had to go without washing or changing their clothes for weeks at a time. This is what happened to George Coppard: 'The things that lay in the seams of trousers, in the deep furrows of . . . wooly pants. A lighted candle applied where they were the thickest made them pop like Chinese crackers. After a session of this, my face would be covered with small blood spots, from extra big fellows, which had popped too vigorously. FOOD In theory, soldiers in the trenches had plenty to eat. Here is a list made by a British soldier in his notebook: List of army rations: 1 man per Diem (day) Bread (or biscuits) 1 1/4lb [567g] Meat (bully beef) 1lb [453g] Potatoes 3/4lb [340g] Bacon 1/4lb [113g] Sugar 2oz [56g] Jam 2oz [56g] Salt 1oz [28g] Cheese 1oz [28g] Butter 3/4oz [21g] Tea 1/2oz [14g] Mustard 1/20oz [1.4g] Pepper 1/36oz [0.7g] But cooking in the trenches was difficult. A soldier from Hull describes a typical meal: ' Bully beef [corned beef] and biscuits, and plum and apple jam and biscuits, washed down with tea flavered from the last meal. Cooked in the same container as the water was boiled, onion being predominant.' At the end of his day in the trench, a soldier might be able to get a few hours sleep in his dug-out. If he was not exhausted, perhaps he might dream that the next day he might catch a 'blighty one'. This was a wound that would not kill or maim him, but serious for him to be sent back to 'Blighty' (Britain). METHODS OF ATTACK HEAVY ARTILLARY: The weapon that most generals liked best was heavy artillery, the big guns. Both sides bombarded each other with explosive shells before starting an attack. ...read more.

Conclusion

The bomb had a central spring-loaded firing-pin and a spring-loaded lever locked by a pin. Once the grenade was in the air, the lever flew up and released the striker, which ignited a four-second time fuse, allowing the thrower to take cover before it exploded. When the grenade went off the cast-iron casing shattered producing a shower of metal fragments. The Germans used stick-shaped grenades known as 'potato mashers'. HAND HELD GUNS: In addition to machine-guns soldiers also carried their own guns. These included the Luger Pistol, the Mauser Gewehr, the Lee Enfield, the Springfield M1903, the Bolt action rifle, the Webley MkIV, the Mannlicher-Carcano and the French Lebel 1886. METHODS OF TRANSPORT: In the early 1900's the British Army began considering the ways that motor transport could be used during a war. It was recognised that motor transport would enable the British Army to move troops very quickly. An annual fee of �15 was to be paid for each lorry regestered with the British Army. By 1914 this fee had been increased to �110. When war was declared in August 1914 a total of 1,200 lorries were acquired by the Army. One of the most successful lorries used by the British Army was the Dennis 3-Ton Lorry. The four-cylinder engine enabled the lorry to reach 55 mph. Over 7,000 Dennis 3-Ton Lorries were built and used during the First World War. At the beginning of the war, Commercial Cars of Luton began producing Commer First Aid lorries. These were used to carry medical stores and stretchers to the first aid post. At the beginning of the First World War Henry Ford refused to let his cars be used in combat conditions. Eventually Ford changed his mind and the Model T was used as a patrol car. The British purchased about 19,000 of these cars during the war. Bibliography 1. Encarta 2. Oxford Encyclopedia 3. World Book 4. Britannica 5. Spartacus Schoolnet 6. Modern World History In Focus by Ben Walsh 7. Longman The Great War by Josh Brooman 8. ...read more.

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