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'Language is in a state of chaos, so much so that nothing is certain' (discuss with two particular moments in Act 1).

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'Language is in a state of chaos, so much so that nothing is certain' (discuss with two particular moments in Act 1) The lexical choices made by Beckett in the first act show many things, such as the relationship between Estragon and Vladimir, and the confusion of the characters as to the time and the meaning of their actions. The main characters, Estragon and Vladimir, switch roles continually, so not using language as an expression of their selves, therefore the words used show no badge of identity. This shows interchangeability in the characters, so keeping the audience searching for the characters' own distinctive personality. This role switching that not even the characters' roles/ personalities are certain. This confusion is increased with the characters' inclination to talk in adjacency pairs like they are both speaking from the same train of thought To say that the language is in a state of chaos suggests there is utter confusion in the play, the audience can hear and understand the individual words being said, but cannot put them into a relevant context or meaning. ...read more.


In this moment in the play there is a lot of uncertainty for both the characters and the audience, which Beckett creates mainly via the language used by the two main protagonists. The characters are unsure about what the other is talking about, Estragon: "Who?" Vladimir: "What?" Estragon: "What's all this about?", and they are also uncertain of what really happens in the bible, Vladimir: "But all four were there...why believe him rather than the others?" The audience is made uncertain of the meaning of the character's talking about the bible, it is near the start of the play so they do not know what is to come. My second moment is different form my first as Estragon and Vladimir are now joined by two passing characters, Pozzo and Lucky, although Lucky does not speak till later on in their meeting. Pozzo speaks of how much pressure Lucky, his knook, puts on him, this is all an act on his part, but Estragon and Vladimir believe him, they repeat Pozzo's words to add definition and to show their feelings of sadness towards him, Pozzo: "It's terrible...he must go...I'm going mad...I cant bear it...any longer..." ...read more.


This chaos is shown when Pozzo appears to have lost his pipe, Estragon says "He's a scream. He's lost his dudeen." This is a word coined by Beckett which does not seem to have any meaning, showing how Beckett uses language to confuse the audience, as it seems slightly ridiculous how Estragon makes up a word purely to rhyme with 'scream'. The chaotic language in the play seems mainly on a humorous level, for example, in the second moment chosen Vladimir rushes off to relieve himself, while doing this Estragon shouts "end of corridor on the left", even though both the characters and audience are aware they are in the middle of nowhere with just a tree. Both of the moments chosen show language to be in a state of chaos, thus supporting the opinion that nothing is certain in the play, although there are certain factors that make this statement debatable which should be taken into account, for example, Vladimir and Estragon's relationship, they have known each other for a long time as they share memories etc. It can also be said that the certainty of some topics in the play is left up to the audience to understand, through the situation and the characters. ...read more.

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