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Medicine Sources Question

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Medicine Sources Question What can you learn from these two sources about Pare's contribution to medicine? (5 marks) Ambroise Pare was a French war surgeon who worked in a number of public hospitals and helped many times on the battlefields, giving him 'war wound' knowledge. He lived between 1510 and 1590. Before Ambroise Pare, soldiers who received a gunshot wound during battle were prone to a lot of pain and suffering. Wounds were burnt with red hot iron called a cautery or would be filled with boiling oil. All doctors knew this was a very painful action but didn't know any different ways to treat the wounds. This is shown by the picture in source two. Source one shows what actually happened when Pare discovered the improved method for treating gunshot wounds. It tells us that there were many issues to the success of the discovery. ...read more.


Due to the high risk of infection deep internal operations were out of the question and many people died due to the trauma of pain. Some people said the pain was as bad as being like a criminal preparing for an execution. The fear of surgery was immense which meant both patients and surgeons suffered with stress. Operations before anaesthetics had no hygiene measures and ordinary equipment, like outdoor saws, were used. The first form of anaesthetic was by Humphry Davis who made patients inhale nitrous oxide. Crawford Long found out that ether was another useful anaesthetic in 1842. After 1846, the public became more accepted to anaesthetics and on the 21st December Robert Liston successfully amputated a leg using ether in twenty-six seconds, the patient even asked whether they started the operation as it had been totally pain free. In 1847, James Simpson found that chloroform could be used during childbirth, as it didn't cause inflammation. ...read more.


Although a wider range of surgery could be carried out, there was still no chance of complex heart surgery as the of infection was too high. One of the most important disadvantages of anaesthetics was that no antiseptics had been formed and because longer, deeper surgery was being carried out there was a greater risk of infection. It has been shown that anaesthetics alone did not lead to major progress in surgery. Without antiseptics which stop infection, anaesthetics are not useful as patients are likely to die of infection, and so, antiseptics are useless without anaesthetics as antiseptics don't relieve pain. Antiseptics are really more important because although during surgery anaesthetics were a 'dream come true', antiseptics made sure that the wound was no longer infected. There were many years when there were no antiseptics but a lot of anaesthetics. This led to people not dying from shock from the operation but from the infection from the machinery. ...read more.

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