• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Petroleum Notes

Extracts from this document...


PETROLEUM NOTES What is petroleum? Petroleum also known as crude oil is a fossil fuel comprising a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. Its composition varies, depending on where in the world it is found, it generally contains alkanes, cycoalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Crude oil is non-renewable (finite) and it cannot be replaced. It was formed: * From the sea, the sea contains many tiny animals and plants called plankton, they get their energy to live and multiply from sunlight. When they die they sink to the bottom of the sea. Those that died millions of years ago, form oil and gas which are the main sources of fuel. * The Dead Sea creatures were buried by sand and mud at the bottom of the sea. It is thought the sun's energy was stored in the bodies of the dead creatures and plants. The dead bodies started to decay. * Over millions of years the dead animals and plants were buried deeper and deeper. ...read more.


A further process takes place under reduced pressures which lower the boiling points, this is called vacuum distillation. Primary distillation - method of fractionation. Distillation is based on the difference in boiling point of the liquids in the mixture to be separated. Successive vaporisation and condensation of crude oil in a fractioning column will separate out the lighter fractions, leaving a residue. Crude oil is often a dark, sticky liquid that cannot be used without changing it. Crude oil is a mixture of different chemical called hydrocarbons. As you can see from the diagram, the temperature at the bottom of the column is kept very high about 350�C and cooler towards the top. This is because the first step to refine crude oil is to heat it until it boils. The burning oil turns into a mixture of gases in the column. The gases then rise up the distillation column this separates gases according to its boiling point. ...read more.


This residue contains the non-volatile hydrocarbons which only vaporise above 350�C but at atmospheric pressure. This residue needs to be distilled further for more fractions to be obtained. But to obtain these fractions they bust be distilled at reduced pressures. This allows mixture to be separated at a temperature below the normal boiling point, and prevents the componenets from decomposing. The fractions obtained from this process in order of boiling pints with the highest first are: bitumen (tar), paraffin waxes, fuel oil, and lubricating oil. What are the uses of the products formed? NAME OF FRACTION BOILING POINT RANGE/�C(approx) NUMBER OF CARBON ATOMS USES Refinery gas -160 - 25 1-4 Fuels for gas cookers, gas fires, camping gas Petrol 30 - 100 4-10 Petrol to fuel cars Naphtha 100 - 180 6-14 Feedstock for petrochemical industry Kerosene 150 - 250 10-16 Fuel for jets, feedstock for petrochemicals Disel 220 - 375 13-25 Fuels for transport and central heating Lubricating oil 350+ 20-30 Lubricating oils feedstock for petrochemicals Fuel oil 350+ 30-40 Fuel for ships and power stations Paraffin waxes 350+ 40-50 Polishing waxes, candles, lubricating grease Bitumen (tar) 350+ Over 50 Surfacing roads, roofing ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level War Poetry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level War Poetry essays

  1. I need to produce a marketing strategy for a new or existing product. I ...

    The advertising activity generated sales far in excess of forecast. Direct Marketing British Gas talks to its customers in a number of ways, informing them of products and services that are relevant to them and may be of interest. Direct marketing utilises the Internet, direct mail, telephone calls and literature

  2. The Haber Process

    Germany learned that air consists of 80% oxygen and their might be methods which will allow them to get nitrogen from. Nitrogen could be received from the air by fractional distillation. Getting Nitrogen was not a big problem now and the Haber process was starting to take place.

  1. The Haber Process

    Firstly, the discovery of the Haber process encouraged people to design more, improved ways of making weapons. It also encouraged people to use more fertilizers, and to try and find better and more effective fertilizers. The main concern in the urban world is that of weaponry.

  2. Determining the Correct Equation for the Decomposition of Copper Carbonate.

    so if aim to get our gas to fill three quarters it will be an amount of gas that we shall be able to read easily. So if we... .00517g : 1cm3 x 70 : x 70 then we shall have.....

  1. Representative Gases & Properties of Gases

    As liquid at -183�C, oxygen has a density of 1.149 g/mL. d) Compressibility During the compression of a gas, the gas particles which are initially very far apart, are crowded closer together. Under sufficient compression, the volume of a given sample of gas can be decreased thousands of times.

  2. The North Sea

    Exploration and Production In 2003, Norway produced about 4.1% of the world's oil and 6.9% of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) crude oil. The country's low domestic oil consumption allows the country to export nearly all of its production, making Norway the world's third-largest oil exporter.

  1. Problems with fossil fuels.

    The transport sector accounts for 22% of all 'greenhouse gas' emissions, which have increased by 5% since 1990. Petrol usage in the UK is now 24 million tonnes per year. Bioethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50% compared with fossil fuels such as petrol.

  2. Look at with examples the advantages and disadvantages of liquid and gaseous fuels

    The resulting gas is approximately 50 per cent incombustible nitrogen derived from the air present in the producer, and is low in fuel value, having only about 28 per cent of the heating value of coke-oven gas. Blast-furnace gas, which results from the interaction of limestone, iron ore, and carbon

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work