• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12

The nature and role of indexicality in language and culture using the data of three of the authors read on the course.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The nature and role of indexicality in language and culture using the data of three of the authors read on the course. According to Charles S. Pierce, we as human beings are 'meaning- makers' and we 'think only in signs'. Therefore meanings are created through our interpretation of signs in the form of words, images, sounds, smells, flavours, acts or objects. These words have no inherent meaning and only become signs when we attach the meaning to them (Pierce, 1931-58, 2.302). Pierce also suggested that it is the interpretation of a sign that signifies something or stands for something other than itself. It is by our unconscious interpretation of signs and associating them with a particular system of rules that makes signs meaningful (Pierce, 1931-58, 2.172). The two important models of what make up a sign were those of linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and philosopher Charles Sanders Pierce. Saussure suggested a dyadic model to the sign; a signifier or the form which the sign takes, and the signified, the representation of the idea (Saussure, 1974:67). In contrast Pierce offered a triadic model which consisted of the Representamen: the form which the sign takes; an Interpretant: the sense made of the sign; and an Object to which the sign refers. This relation between the representamen, the interpretant and the object Pierce called 'semiosis' (Pierce, 1931-58, 2.228). He explains this concept by the use of the traffic light sign for 'stop': the red light at a junction facing traffic (the representamen); the traffic coming to a stop (the object) and the knowledge that a red light indicates that the traffic must stop (the interpretant) ...read more.

Middle

(Benveniste, 1971:227). In linguistics, time is self-referential or self- reflexive and deixis refers to indexical signs within language. These signs are the demonstratives, adverbs and adjectives which are used to arrange the "spatial and temporal relationship around the subject taken as the referent." (Benveniste, 1971:226). Loudes de Leon This model of linguistic participation was derived from Goffman's (1974, 1981) analysis of the speaker/hearer dyad as form of interaction. (de Leon, 1998:135). This participation structure advocates the child model; these children are taught to participate at a very young age. This participation may involve gestures, gaze direction, body-movements with little or no vocalisation other than gurgling; which is treated as a meaningful part of the child's development by the adults and parents. Children are taught to speak even before they are actually able to, and at a very young age their social participation begins. This suggests a deep level of interaction between the parents and young children. Every gesture and sign is taken up and interpreted by the adults. Everything they do is communicative and every utterance is meaningful which is signified by the response of the adult to the child. (Lecture Notes, 21/10/03). Returning to Pierce's triadic model of signs for an example, the gurgle of the child is the representamon; the gesture or sound uttered by the child. The interpreton is the response by the adult to the child and the object is whatever intention the adult thinks the child wants or needs. From this early stage the children learn to interpret their actions as meaningful because the adults do. In the conversation between the grandfather, Mal and her mother Mel is embedded as speaker by her grandfather and her mother is the addressee. ...read more.

Conclusion

Accent indicates the social personae you inhabit and a role alignment with particular values, these particular styles or values are also icons. Indexical icons are therefore powerful kinds of ideological symbols: rough people talk in a rough way and refined people talk in a refined way. (Lecture Notes, 16/12/'03). Society is built through acts of speaking with differences in role relationships and interaction. Goffman uses the metaphor of 'footing to describe where you stand with other people. They begin on one footing and change to a different one depending on the interaction between them through the action of speaking. Pierce's theory of signs is questioned by, amongst others, Beth Singer who argues that the major fault in his theory is that is not general enough: "it defines the term 'sign' as 'sign of' and thus makes it essential to a sign that it stands for something else." (Cited in Colapietro 1987:205). Bakhtin uses a description of a kind of indexicality that is verbal utterances seen also as social interaction. Systems of speech come from the stratification of society and the division of labour which affects the way people speak and the way society is organised (Lecture notes, 25/11/'03). In conclusion, the recent interest in the study of indexicality has shown that it is a universal feature of languages and more complicated than first thought. Indexicality cannot be understood without looking at the social and cultural contexts of speech although Hanks (2000) suggests that the abstractness and the amount of terms that describe indexicality, raise the question of agreement to the subject. As indexicality is based on contiguity it must be defined in relation to 'local standards of copresence and relevance' and that the structure and interpretation of indexicality is culturally specific. (Hanks, 2000). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre & Frameworks essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating how language has changed in children's literature; in relation to interaction between ...

    5 star(s)

    while the descriptions are given large amounts of detail. * Further change is evident when comparing the previous two texts to the description of "Miss Potts" in Malory Towers. Types of sentence are not generally varied in this extract; the majority of the paragraph is comprised of short simple sentences,

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Language Aquisition Notes

    5 star(s)

    Representational is used by 6-8+ year olds. Possible way to get the theorists in Maybe if you get a transcript of child speech, you could easily get in about caretaker speech. as for cognitive, you could get it in if a child is talkin about abstract ideas, cuz they'd only understand them if they understood the concept.

  1. An exploration of the extent in which childrens TV presenters accommodate to the participants ...

    participants and how they speak, continuing to use formal and archaic language (dexterity, pivotal, valour, foolhardy) even when his participants don't, for example: "we was quite in the lead" and the frequent use of "gonna". This shows that, despite his participants possibly not understanding the language he uses, he continues

  2. Investigation into Gender Differences in the Language of Personal Profiles on Dating Websites

    Over 30% of males in my sample advertised themselves as being hard workers, and over 20% of females said this was something they wanted in a partner. No men said this was something they looked for in women, and no women wrote that is was a characteristic they possessed.

  1. Turn taking mechanisms in conversation.

    The conversation begins with N asking B 'what kind of music do you like?' This is an example of a 'speaker selects next' mechanism as N signifies that B has been selected through looking at him as she addresses him.

  2. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

    We crave and loathe the same things at the same time: Wanting to be more "Western" in our lifestyles, while retaining our "Estonian" character in our languages and attitudes. "What is to be done?" Today, the problem facing a pluralistic and democratic society like Estonia is how it will maintain its linguistic diversity.

  1. A one to one interaction with an elderly woman Aunty Emily to try through ...

    non-aggressive tone of voice that I used, this could have helped create a loving atmosphere which explains the reason why she was calm and not upset. BODY LANGUAGE: This is a little different from all other types of non-verbal communication that are used to expressive purposes because body language as a form is always active.

  2. Language Investigation: Barack Obama Inaugural Address

    the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered. Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work