• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Global Problem of Counterfeit Medicine

Extracts from this document...


Counterfeit medicine By John Smith Counterfeit medicine by John Smith What is medicine? Medicines are chemicals or compounds made to cure, prevent or stop disease and relief symptoms or diagnose certain illnesses. Medicines are ultimately used to save lives, not just in humans but also in other life forms. Different types of medicines and how their made? Medicines come from a range of sources; they come from our biosphere in nature in places such as the Amazon rainforest. For example, the Curare plant is a large poisonous vine rich in alkaloids. The alkaloids relax muscles and are used as an arrow poison. In South America, it is used to treat bruises, fever, edema, and kidney stones. Other medicines are produced in laboratories by incorporating together a number of chemicals. In other cases such as penicillin; they are a derivative of organisms such as fungus. A few medicines are even biologically engineered by inserting genes into bacteria that make them produce the desired substance. Ways on how to take medicine * Liquids that are swallowed (like cough syrup) * Drops that are put into ears or eyes * Creams, gels, or ointments that are rubbed onto the skin * Inhalers (like nasal sprays or asthma inhalers) ...read more.


and require particular knowledge and expertise, which takes many years to acquire. To achieve this would require a strict governmental will, backed by its people to institute a sturdy national drug regulatory squad. Lack of appropriate drug legislation Regulations and legislations form the main pillars of drug regulation. Legislation means; the law which has been circulated by a legislature or other governing body (or the process of making it). If there is no legislation and regulations there are no direct rules that monitor medicines, therefore if a crime is committed in terms of counterfeiting drugs it is not recognised. The World Health Organisation or the WHO have members who follow their drug rules and regulations however only a few member have enacted special national legislation addressing the issue of counterfeit drugs. In addition to this, the punishments and sanctions to counterfeiters are so weak that in most cases this is no deterrent. Absence of or weak drug regulation Drugs have to be effective and of fine quality whilst being safe to produce the correct effects. To ensure these effects, requires the creation of ? knowledgeable national drug regulatory authority with the required workers and other resources to organise the manufacture, importation, distribution and sale of medicines. ...read more.


Lack of regulation by exporting countries and within free trade zones Medicines made to sell overseas are not looked out for by numerous exporting countries to the identical criterion as those formed for household use. To add to that, pharmaceuticals (also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament) are from time to time exported through free trade zones where drug management is negligent and where repackaging and re-labelling occurs. Trade understanding like the above can provide better chances for counterfeiters to introduce illegal substances into the allocating chains even when the system is highly regulated. Trade through several intermediaries Trade in medicines hardly ever takes place among the manufacturing country and the importing country. At this moment time, it takes place from one side to another side via more intermediate countries or operating or also known as trading houses. In trading houses they may sometimes engage repackaging and re-labelling which may be carried out without any controls under conditions that do not act in accordance with with good manufacturing practices' requirements. What to do, if you have purchased a counterfeit drug? If you believe you have counterfeited drugs keep the drug, packaging and receipt then contact a company called the; Food and Drugs Administration or the FDA which can be contacted by calling 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088) or online at www.fda.gov/medwatch. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level General Studies section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

There is a good structure and some evidence of research but the whole piece lacks evaluation. It is possible to argue that some counterfeit drugs perform a valuable service in certain circumstances but it has not been put forward at all. I would like to see much more discussion of the drug manufacturers profits and the moral case for counterfeiting drugs.

Marked by teacher Dennis Salter 13/03/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level General Studies essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    English as a global language - good or bad?

    4 star(s)

    However unlike Mandarin, English is spoken worldwide as a second language by many people in many countries. This makes it a better candidate for becoming a Global language, compared with Mandarin. English fitted in a slot that could have been filled by any other language as well.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Discuss the statement " Art changes the world as much as government and politicians ...

    4 star(s)

    as much as politician can? is a controversial statement as we can argue that politics and politician have an impact in our society, as without a government and laws we will be living in a chaotic community likewise it can be argued that arts have changed the world by giving

  1. Formal Report on Time Management. As part of my Study Skills portfolio, Julie Khamis ...

    On Wednesdays and Fridays I have the least amount of variety with only 2 hours and 3 hours of leisure time respectfully. This is mainly because I am in college all day on these days. This restricts my time considerably.

  2. Can the world sustain our increasing dependency over electricity?

    All the other sources such as wind power, hydroelectricity, tidal energy, etc are derived form of solar energy. However, all the other sources are also renewable and effective. The leaders of the world must unite and spend adequate budget on research of these renewable and green energy sources.

  1. Alternative sources of energy

    These holes are the reason of global warming as the infrared rays are touching the earth's surface directly and is leading to a rise in the temperature. In order to prevent earth for our future generations we need to find an alternative method to reduce the emission of CO2 .

  2. Is Global Warming Real?

    This is caused by the greenhouse effect, in which the greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, trap the heat and ultra violet rays from the sun in the earth's atmosphere, this in turn raises the temperature. It is also believed that there is not enough information from the past hundred

  1. Nothing Gold Can Stay

    Frost uses metaphor and paradox with the line 'So dawn goes down to day'. Generally, dawn is seen to rise to day, with day being the zenith of our existence.

  2. The role of women compared to the role of men in Draculas Guest and ...

    The white represents the innocence she puts off, that women use their so called "innocence" to get close to humans and animals. Because she is also the white worm of the novel's title her femininity is really an overriding animality.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work