• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

A vast area under discussion, mostly in this day and age, pollution is a poisonous or harmful contamination of the biosphere.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A vast area under discussion, mostly in this day and age, pollution is a poisonous or harmful contamination of the biosphere. There are many different forms of pollution including litter, industrial effluent, domestic waste, nuclear waste, toxic waste, water pollution, agricultural pollution, noise pollution and air pollution. Air pollution, being the main area of concern due to its threatening symptoms, comes from a range of various sources such as factories, power plants, dry cleaners, motor vehicles and even windblown dust and wildfires. It can be divided into particulate and gaseous pollutants. Particulate pollutants consist largely of dust and smoke. Gaseous pollutants are caused by the burning of fuels (wood, oil, coal) and consist mostly of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide etc. Ever since the passenger vehicle was invented, air pollution has been an escalating worry. In the U.S. there is approximately 770 cars per 1000 people. In many urban areas, motor vehicles are the distinct leading donor to ground-level ozone, a key element of smog. Ozone is formed by the reaction O + O2 O3 At ground level, ozone is anything but a shield, as we know it to be in the stratosphere. ...read more.

Middle

Roughly 2% of the manufactured hydrocarbons that finish up in the earth's atmosphere are as a result of refuelling loss. As well as damaging our environment, pollution, in particular ozone has quite an impact on human health. Its presence in the troposphere may perhaps cause an assortment of symptoms in people depending on the individual that us affected, the exposure time and the concentration of the ozone per unit volume of air breathed in. Reduced lung function can come about in even perfectly normally healthy people at concentrations of about 100-300 ppb (parts per billion). People with a history of respiratory illnesses are at the most risk. Correspondingly, symptoms are aggravated by physical exercise. Effects of ozone on humans - Concentration (ppm) Duration Effect 0.005 - 2.0 - Threshold of recognition by smell 0.1 - Irritation of upper respiratory tract 0.1 - 1.0 2 weeks Shortness of breath, continuous headache 0.5 3 hours Changes in erythrocytes and blood serum 0.75 2 hours Reduced pulmonary functions 1.5 - 2.0 2 hours Dry throat, lessened mental ability 11.2 15 minutes Rapid onset of unconsciousness 50 1 hour On basis of animal data. ...read more.

Conclusion

154 The first advance in dealing with hydrocarbon emissions due to refuelling at service stations hence allowing gasoline vapours to escape into the air is a car designed so that it leaks less. For instance, to decrease the quantity of petrol vapours that are capable of escaping, the carburettor can be enclosed. Hypothetically speaking improvements in combustion efficiency could reduce pollutant levels as long as the amount of vehicles on the roads does not increase. There are quite a few ways of achieving this including pre-combustion systems, which permit fuels to be burnt more capably. Post combustion systems endeavour to eradicate pollutants once they are within the exhaust system. Another way of controlling pollutant getting into our atmosphere is reducing the number of cars on the road and replacing it with good public transport. To conclude ozone has been exposed as a very harmful chemical in our atmosphere. The main problem is the amount of people who are uninformed of how serious the penalties are. The more people that are aware of the consequences the more that can be done to reduce pollution in the long term. Yet any effective measures would have to achieve if possible the cooperation of world regions in order to make a significant difference. Nancie Isibor 1 Open Book Examination ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. I am going to research waste pollution. I have chosen to research waste pollution ...

    and also be putting people's health at risk. The health and care workers most likely to be involved are; environmental health officers, health and safety officers, bin men doctors and nurses The role of the environmental agency is to create a better environment and waste minimisation is central to the achievement of this goal.

  2. Atmospheric Pollution – an Environmental Law Essay

    Therefore, the question of sustainable development is highlighted again. How much should a nation consider the state of the environment, when clearly it needs to concentrate on the economy? As everyone is aware, the government obtains most of it's funding from taxes. If they were to continuously tax the nation, then no one would vote for them.

  1. Sociocultural Factors Affecting BP Petrol Filling Stations in the UK

    Shell because BP have great prices, since BP introduced a high octane's, environmentally-friendly petrol, BP ultimate, in December, sales have soared. Most of the service stations selling the new fuel have seen sales jump about 60%. All service stations want to keep their customers and attract new ones.

  2. Ozone (O3) is an allotropic form of oxygen with three atoms in each molecule. ...

    UVB radiation can damage polymers and other materials such as rubber and plastics. Hence, high UVB levels hasten the breakdown of these materials, reducing their life span (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2005). 4.3 Ways to overcome the problem The discovery of ozone depletion caused several countries including US to ban the use of CFCs as aerosol propellants.

  1. Air pollution - Accurate identification of activities and legislation which reduce the harmful effects.

    In addition, it is possible to prevent many types of air pollution that are not regulated through personal, careful attention to our interactions with the environment. In the UK, most household products come with instructions about safe use. Building materials should be reviewed for potential harmful effects.

  2. Emerging Chemical Contaminants: The Case of Perfluorochemicals

    Ninety-seven percent of PFOA that was produced by 3M was used by its industrial customers and in its own processes as a fluoropolymer processing aid (US EPA 2002). FTOHs are widely used as precursor compounds in the production of fluorinated polymers used in paper and carpet treatments and have similar applications as those of PFOS-based products.

  1. A report concerning new business development in the local area, which is the Paddington ...

    The main interests of the council are the thoughts of the residents, whether they will be satisfied with the ideas or not has a major impact on the final decision on what the developers are allowed to do. The Westminster Council seeks to improve one of the life indicators which

  2. Management of woodland area.

    I will do this to make it a fair test because if do one branch for 30 seconds and I do the next one for 10 seconds then I won't be a fair test. This is because the longer I shake the branch the more invertebrates will fall, so I will do each branch for about 1 minute.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work