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A vast area under discussion, mostly in this day and age, pollution is a poisonous or harmful contamination of the biosphere.

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Introduction

A vast area under discussion, mostly in this day and age, pollution is a poisonous or harmful contamination of the biosphere. There are many different forms of pollution including litter, industrial effluent, domestic waste, nuclear waste, toxic waste, water pollution, agricultural pollution, noise pollution and air pollution. Air pollution, being the main area of concern due to its threatening symptoms, comes from a range of various sources such as factories, power plants, dry cleaners, motor vehicles and even windblown dust and wildfires. It can be divided into particulate and gaseous pollutants. Particulate pollutants consist largely of dust and smoke. Gaseous pollutants are caused by the burning of fuels (wood, oil, coal) and consist mostly of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide etc. Ever since the passenger vehicle was invented, air pollution has been an escalating worry. In the U.S. there is approximately 770 cars per 1000 people. In many urban areas, motor vehicles are the distinct leading donor to ground-level ozone, a key element of smog. Ozone is formed by the reaction O + O2 O3 At ground level, ozone is anything but a shield, as we know it to be in the stratosphere. ...read more.

Middle

Roughly 2% of the manufactured hydrocarbons that finish up in the earth's atmosphere are as a result of refuelling loss. As well as damaging our environment, pollution, in particular ozone has quite an impact on human health. Its presence in the troposphere may perhaps cause an assortment of symptoms in people depending on the individual that us affected, the exposure time and the concentration of the ozone per unit volume of air breathed in. Reduced lung function can come about in even perfectly normally healthy people at concentrations of about 100-300 ppb (parts per billion). People with a history of respiratory illnesses are at the most risk. Correspondingly, symptoms are aggravated by physical exercise. Effects of ozone on humans - Concentration (ppm) Duration Effect 0.005 - 2.0 - Threshold of recognition by smell 0.1 - Irritation of upper respiratory tract 0.1 - 1.0 2 weeks Shortness of breath, continuous headache 0.5 3 hours Changes in erythrocytes and blood serum 0.75 2 hours Reduced pulmonary functions 1.5 - 2.0 2 hours Dry throat, lessened mental ability 11.2 15 minutes Rapid onset of unconsciousness 50 1 hour On basis of animal data. ...read more.

Conclusion

154 The first advance in dealing with hydrocarbon emissions due to refuelling at service stations hence allowing gasoline vapours to escape into the air is a car designed so that it leaks less. For instance, to decrease the quantity of petrol vapours that are capable of escaping, the carburettor can be enclosed. Hypothetically speaking improvements in combustion efficiency could reduce pollutant levels as long as the amount of vehicles on the roads does not increase. There are quite a few ways of achieving this including pre-combustion systems, which permit fuels to be burnt more capably. Post combustion systems endeavour to eradicate pollutants once they are within the exhaust system. Another way of controlling pollutant getting into our atmosphere is reducing the number of cars on the road and replacing it with good public transport. To conclude ozone has been exposed as a very harmful chemical in our atmosphere. The main problem is the amount of people who are uninformed of how serious the penalties are. The more people that are aware of the consequences the more that can be done to reduce pollution in the long term. Yet any effective measures would have to achieve if possible the cooperation of world regions in order to make a significant difference. Nancie Isibor 1 Open Book Examination ...read more.

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