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Air pollution - Accurate identification of activities and legislation which reduce the harmful effects.

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Introduction

E3: accurate identification of activities and legislation which reduce the harmful effects. Air Pollution Local authorities and corporate clients are responsible under a wide and growing range of legislation to manage air quality and pollution. As public and social awareness of the environment increases, the legislative requirements are becoming tighter. Key legislation relating to air pollution and gas emissions includes:- * Town and Country Planning Regulations * Environment Act 1995 * Environmental Protection Act 1990 * Part 2a of the Contaminated Land Regulations The Government and devolved administrations are committed to meeting people's right to clean air. It is essential for a good quality of life. People have a right to expect that the air they breathe will not harm them. We have come a long way since the smog's of the 1950s. We have achieved cleaner air through regulating industry and progressively tightening emissions standards for vehicles. Air quality in the UK is now generally very good. But there are still sometimes unacceptably high levels of pollution that can harm human health and the environment. In many countries in the world, steps are being taken to stop the damage to our environment from air pollution. Scientific groups study the damaging effects on plant, animal and human life. Legislative bodies write laws to control emissions. Educators in schools and universities teach students, beginning at very young ages, about the effects of air pollution. The first step to solving air pollution is assessment. Researchers have investigated outdoor air pollution and have developed standards for measuring the type and amount of some serious air pollutants. Scientists must then determine how much exposure to pollutants is harmful. Once exposure levels have been set, steps can be undertaken to reduce exposure to air pollution. ...read more.

Middle

Car exhaust pollutants can be controlled by burning the fuel as completely as possible, by recirculating fumes from fuel tank, carburettor, and crankcase, and by changing the engine exhaust to harmless substances in catalytic converters. Industrially emitted particulates may be trapped in cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, and filters. Pollutant gases can be collected in liquids or on solids, or incinerated into harmless substances. Vehicle exhaust adversely affects the health of animals and plants and the chemical nature of the atmosphere. This is why catalytic converters are installed in all newly made cars which are devices that reduce the exhaust pollutants produced by an automobile engine. The engine's combustion process gives off carbon monoxide and other harmful chemical compounds. A substance called a catalyst in the converter helps change these pollutants into safer substances. Every time you visit m.o.t people will check if your catalytic converter is working/safe. The risk to healthy individuals is VERY SMALL at all levels of pollution likely to be experienced in the UK. People who suffer from a lung disease such as asthma should be able to manage their condition themselves by increasing their medication if they find that their condition deteriorates on days when pollution is high. Those who suffer from chronic chest diseases such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema may also be more sensitive to changes in air pollution. Some people with heart disease may also be more sensitive. Sufferers from these conditions should always seek medical advice if their symptoms change as it is unclear what proportion of patients or types of heart disease are involved. Patients with heart disease should not in general adjust their medication themselves and there is also a risk of alarming patients unnecessarily. ...read more.

Conclusion

Air Quality Management Strategies Air quality management (AQM) covers the entire process of assessing and tackling air quality problems, from identification of poor air quality through to formulation and execution of a remediation strategy. Assessment of the problem will include identification of significant sources of air pollution - such as traffic, industry, households, commerce or agricultural - together with 'hotspots' or areas of elevated pollutant concentrations. Once hotspots are identified, along with the contributing sources, it is possible to evaluate the options for controlling the emissions in such a way so as to improve air quality to an acceptable level. The Environmental Protection Act 1990 To prevent the pollution from emissions to air, land or water from scheduled processes the concept of integrated pollution control has been introduced. Control of pollution to air from the less heavily polluting processes is through the local authority. In addition to extending the Clean Air Acts by including new measures to control nuisances, the Regulations introduce litter control; amend the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; regulate genetically modified organisms; regulate the import and export of waste; regulate the supply, storage and use of polluting substances and allow the setting up of contaminated land registers by the local authority. In 1991 the Water Act 1989 that controlled the pollution and supply of water was replaced by five separate Acts. The Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations) 1983 These regulations cover all work involving asbestos insulation and asbestos coating and relate to any material containing asbestos that is used for thermal, acoustic or other insulation purposes including fire protection. Asbestos cement and asbestos board are outside these regulations. Every operator undertaking work involving listed types of asbestos materials must possess a licence issued by the HSE. ...read more.

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