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All cities experience environmental problems to a lesser or greater degree, usually cause great obstruction to the developers that attempt to improve the urban environment.

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Introduction

All cities experience environmental problems to a lesser or greater degree, usually cause great obstruction to the developers that attempt to improve the urban environment. The brown agenda that obstructs this includes these issues: Pollution from a variety of sources, especially from industrial, domestic and transport services- pollution of the air, land and water is a major problem in most developing world cities. The drive of industrialization brings with it the inevitable problems, especially as legislation to protect the environment is often non-existent or rarely enforced. Air pollution is the most obvious threat-the causes are usually traffic, factories, incinerators and power plants-specially when the industrial plants are old. Air in Mexico City, Mexico, is so poor that breathing it is like smoking 60 cigarettes a day. Chemical pollution is also a problem-waste from power plants and overspills from fertilizers from the ground can leak into the water supply. ...read more.

Middle

An example of an MEDC problem of waste disposal is in the `Bronx', south of New-York-rubbish continually clutters the streets, just like in the squatter settlements in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rio faces many problems associated with waste-50% of people living in favelas don't have access to an indoor toilet-the sewage runs through open ditches and eventually runs up to street level creating an incredible hazard of disease etc. Dereliction of land can obstruct development-due to a number of reasons-many toxic leaks that enable a growth of development on the land, unsightly areas, abandoned areas where buildings are in ruins, e.g. Cairo, Egypt, the buildings decline but not restored-leaving them abandoned a huge safety hazard. Dereliction also occurs in MEDCs such as in the `Bronx', New-York, during the 1970s landlords were burning down their properties to claim insurance money-the buildings are boarded up and left derelict and impossible to restore-resulting in brown field sites. ...read more.

Conclusion

This will reduce the release of harmful chemicals such as Carbon Monoxide (which can attach to the red blood cells and cause serious lung problems and even death), Nitrogen Oxide etc caused by the factors mentioned. Pollution levels can also be monitored and guidelines be released over the levels of pollution in certain areas. Sewage and waste disposal can be resolved by: improved public awareness-recycling etc. for example the Christians in Cairo, Egypt, sort through the rubbish and recycle the majority of the waste-however Muslims do not do this due to religious beliefs they hold about pig products. However, this is not always a good thing-the hospital waste is also dumped here-threatening disease etc on the people recycling the waste. Landfill sites, incineration plants and exportation of the waste to the areas (usually MEDCs to LEDCS though) can remove the problem of waste. Sewage pipes can be inserted to remove the problems of disease etc on places such as ...read more.

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