• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Analyse the reasons for and the consequences of the economic development of polar and sub-polar regions

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Analyse the reasons for and the consequences of the economic development of polar and sub-polar regions Although indigenous populations established themselves centuries ago, polar and sub-polar regions of the Arctic and Antarctica have only fairly recently begun to develop. Originally classified as remote regions in the world, where the only activities, which took place, were small-scale fishing and hunting by locals in order to survive, they have become sources of great economic development and prosperity. Due to their proximity to many highly populated countries, Arctic regions have perhaps experienced greater economic development than Antarctic regions. The route of this economic development began during the 17th century, when indigenous people began to increase their contact with the outside world. For example, by 1700, trading had already begun with the Hudson Bay Company in Eastern Canada as people needed food and supplies to survive as their populations grew. However, economic development was really boosted when people started to exploit the wide ranges of minerals. The 'gold rushes' during the 1890s (when gold was discovered) brought in many prospectors into Arctic regions, which led to planned investments by large companies and governments in order to exploit the mineral. ...read more.

Middle

The tourism industry is increasing, going from its first cruise in 1964 to now receiving 10,000 visitors each year to come and see the penguins, seals and other wildlife and to go fishing. Fishing also became a major activity when soviet fleets started to do commercial fishing here in 1967. However, the discovery of seals (especially fur seals) and their wealth by Captain Cook in 1775, led to the introduction of the sealing industry, which brought in great profit for the economy. After 1840, the sealing industry was replaced by whales and whale processing stations, which also boosted the economy. These stations, located in Grytviken, have now been turned into outdoor museums as a source of tourism. Although it may not contribute much to the economy, following World War II, there was a significant rise in scientific research and a number of countries have set up year-round research stations, such as Chile, Britain and Australia. There is also a wide range of minerals here, including iron ore, chromium and platinum. Both Arctic regions and Antarctica suffer from the environmental consequences caused by economic development, such as overfishing, water and land pollution, as well as industrial related issues such as acidification and radioactivity in the Arctic region. ...read more.

Conclusion

On the other hand, however, there have been some beneficial consequences. For example, in Alaska, the increase in tourism meant that in 1999, tourism generated $658 million to its economy and employed 15,900 people and is the third largest industry in Alaska. Its fishing industry, which is the second largest after oil and gas, employs 13,000 people directly and another 9,200 in seafood processing. The concern for sustainability in all the polar and sub-polar regions has meant that many agreements have been made and conservation groups have been set up in order to protect and sustain the environment and the economies. For example, the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) manages fishing quotas and policies in Prince William Sound to control overfishing. As world population increased, regions, especially densely populated countries with no or few resources of their own, needed to support growing populations, looked to polar and sub-polar regions for fishery development and resource exploitation, which consequently led to tourism. The results of these developments have both good and bad consequences; however, in order to retain their rich supply of resources and almost unharmed natural environments, sustainability must be a key factor in throughout the process of economic development. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating Travel & Tourism

    5 star(s)

    There are 2 examples of interaction between commercial and non-commercial. I will look into it in the Lake District and also in TICs in general to show the commercial and non-commercial sides of certain groups. Below are examples of the Lake Districts Stakeholder groups and what they do, I have

  2. Sustainable Tourism in Australia

    Tourism Australia is also working with the tourism industry to identify and grow niche markets. $45.5 million has gone into domestic tourism which is trying to be developed even more even though it is currently a very strong tourism destination.

  1. The post-war Development of the Travel and Tourism Industry.

    Another recent technology that has helped to increase the efficiency of booking a holiday is a global distribution system. This consists of a speedy dedicated-line access, a huge database of details including accommodation, travel, hotels and car hire. It is also global.

  2. Examine the causes and consequences of the rise in manufacturing in NICs

    Henry Ford began production of the Ford model T during the 1920s, and developed the idea of Fordism, where all parts of the car were standardised, thereby simplifying production and achieving economies of scale that no other entrepreneur had ever been able to previously, and thus maximising profits.

  1. The UK travel and tourism industry

    This is likely to include leisure travel services for the mass market as well as a range of specialist travel products and services. Maniples do not benefit from economies of scale to the same extent as the multiples, but they are able to build close ties and relationships, with business

  2. Extinction of Glaciers: Endangering Life

    Blue Glacier in the Olympic Mountains), in Canada (e.g. Sentinel Glacier in the Rockey Mountains), and in East Africa (e.g. Lewis Glacier, Kenya). Despite the importance of glacier studies, funds for glacier monitoring by labor intensive routine methods are declining. This necessitates the incorporation of new technologies, such as air-and space-born laser altimetry and remote sensing, to monitor changes of large glaciers and glaciers system.

  1. Threats to antarctica

    It is unsatisfactory but at the present time there is nothing we can do to completely halt global warming but reducing will help slow down the melting ice although there is little that can be done. Fishing: There is a danger that krill and other small fish will be over

  2. Outline and suggest reasons for the issues facing countries at very low levels of ...

    factors has meant that more Vietnamese children are in school than ever before. Therefore it seems imperative and important for both governments to encourage trade and to encourage TNC?s to invest in these countries as these can increase the money earned by people within the country and also provide a

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work