• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

At the Edge of the Earth.

Extracts from this document...


At the edge of the earth. Below the snowline is a treeless zone of alpine pastures that have for generations been used for the summer grazing of goats and cattle. Agriculture is confined to the valleys and foothills, with fruit growing and viticulture on some sunny slopes. Further down the mountin normal plants still cannot grow only plants that are adapted to the cold are able to grow. Forests of the pine trees grow higher up the mountain where it is colder. Forest of broad-leaved trees and a wide range of other vegetation grow at the base of the mountain. Typically in mountain ranges it is high on the mountaintop. It is so cold that plants cannot grow here. There is only snow and bare rock. Summit regions above 3000 m (about 9800 ft) are glaciated. Peaks and crests, however, rise above the ice, displaying jagged shapes (tooth like horns, needles, and knife-edged ridges). About 2 % of the total area of the Alps is covered in ice. The longest valley glacier, the aletsch Glacier in the Bernese Alps, is 18 km (11ml) ...read more.


Life has however changed in the Alps tourism has brought with it both benefits and problems. 50 million people visit the Alps every year. The attraction is mainly winter ski-ing. To cater for all these people forests have to be mown down to make room for the ski slopes and lodges for people o stay in. Effects of tourism include erosion and acid rain from the many vehicles. Areas of this nature are prone to avalanches. Benefits and problems can also be seen with the tunnels. There have been numerous accidents in the tunnels. Recently two trucks collided and exploded in the St. Gothard tunnel as a result a hundred people are missing. Long alpine tunnels are crucial in modern living but accidents have left officials questioning them. A distinctive Alpine pastoral economy that evolved through the centuries has been modified since the 19th century by industry based on indigenous raw materials, such as the industries in the Mur and Murz valleys of the southern Austria that used iron ore from deposits near Eisenerz. Hydroelectric power development at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, often involving many different watersheds, led to the establishment in the lower valleys of electricity-dependent industries, manufacturing such products as aluminium, chemicals, and specialty steels. ...read more.


The road tunnel under Mont Blanc was opened in 1965. Many truck roads now cross the Alps, such as the main motorway route from Switzerland to Italy, which runs from Zurich past the Walensee and the town of Chur. Causes: * Heavy snowfall compressing and adding weight to the earlier falls, especially on windward slopes. * Steep slopes of over 25 degrees where stability is reduced and friction is more easily overcome. * A sudden increase in temperature, especially on the south-facing slopes and, in the Alps, under fohn wind conditions. * Heavy rain falling upon snow (more likely in Scotland than in the Alps) * Deforestation, partly for new ski runs, which reduces slope stability. * Vibrations triggered by off-piste skiers, any nearby traffic and more dangerously, earth movements. * Very long, cold, dry winters followed by heavy snowfalls in spring. Under theses conditions, earlier falls of snow will turn into ice over which later falls will slide (some local people perceive this to pose the greatest avalanche risk). Consequences: Avalanches can block roads and railways, cut off power supplies and telecommunications and, under extreme conditions, destroy buildings and cause loss of life. Between 1980 and 1991 there were, in Alpine Europe alone 1210-recorded deaths. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating Travel & Tourism

    5 star(s)

    They buy the holidays from the tour operators and then add a commission rate to the holidays of around 10%. This means that they are making a profit upon the holiday they are selling and are selling the holiday for more money.

  2. Investigating Travel and Tourism

    An example of an emergent destination is Alaska. While cruises to Alaska are well established the tourism potential of the wild, remote resources of the state are emerging. The public and the private sector tour operators such as the National parks are opening wetlands and forests.

  1. What is the impact of Tourism and Recreation on Epping Forest?

    The score I delivered is acceptable because numerous plants where shown to be crushed and in some cases dead. Looking at all of the graphs relating to this factor; I have now come to the decision which has led to me to the conclusion which states that the current average

  2. Different types of travel destination. Study of Cardiff and Barcelona as travel destinations.

    For those who like the countryside then you must see the mountain of The mountain, acts as a backdrop for most of the city and is home to many exotic garden as well as the Greek theatres several of Barcelona's most prestigious museums and sculpturesand one of the most famous the Olympic stadium.

  1. The UK travel and tourism industry

    Miniple Travel Agencies: These are agencies of more than 6 and up to 100 travel shops. They are privately owned, and may have started as a family business that has grown and expanded to cover an area of region of the country, e.g.

  2. Development of the leisure and recreation industry

    Consumer spending in UK As we can see from the previous task average house hold disposable income has increased, this is being used in leisure product. This industry is a major contributor to the UK economy estimated at a current value of �147 billion per annum.

  1. Examine the causes and consequences of the rise in manufacturing in NICs

    Henry Ford began production of the Ford model T during the 1920s, and developed the idea of Fordism, where all parts of the car were standardised, thereby simplifying production and achieving economies of scale that no other entrepreneur had ever been able to previously, and thus maximising profits.

  2. Spain: European Studies

    The bottoms four of 2A are relegated and the top four groups of 2B go into four playoffs groups for the four spots in 2A. Similar systems apply to the third and lower divisions. One difference with the English football is that reserve teams (called team B, C ect.)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work