• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19

"Bottom up not top down!" Is this the way ahead for Aid and Investment projects?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Samantha Costelloe "Bottom up not top down!" Is this the way ahead for Aid and Investment projects? Contents 1 Abstract. 2 Introduction 3 Differences between Aid and investment. 4 Definition of terms 5 Types of Aid. 6 Case study- the Hertzog agricultural cooperative, South Africa. 7 Case study- the West coast investment Initiative, South Africa. 8 Case study- Agrarian Foundation of Tochantins - Agraguai (FATA), Brazil. 9 Case study- Export orientated agriculture in Puerto Rico 10 Case study- CIDSE development plan, Vietnam 11 Case study- The Polonoroeste Project, Brazil 12-13 Conclusion 14 Bibliography and methodology 15- Appendix ABSTRACT: In South Africa, agricultural co-operatives have been established to improve the livelihoods of the rural community. At the same time, the government has invested in the steel industry, aiming to create jobs and thereby raise standards of living. In Brazil, small co-operatives have also been established. A contrasting approach to agricultural development is export orientated agriculture in Puerto Rico. In Vietnam, a bottom up approach to developing rural areas is a credit and savings program dedicated at the poorest people. A top down rural development project in brazil aims to create jobs and provide land. Both bottom up and Top down approaches have advantages and disadvantages. ...read more.

Middle

Disadvantages of the scheme are that it only benefits a small group of people, and does not affect the rest of the region. Top down -The West Coast Investment Initiative, South Africa In 1996 South Africa's department of trade and industry established of a number of "spatial development initiatives" (SDI's) across the country, in areas which it identified as having "unlocked economic development potential".1 One SDI, was the West coast investment initiative (WCII), was designated in western Cape Province, located 50km north of Cape Town. The main project of WCII has been the saldanha sands mini mill steel project. The existence of a deep-water harbour and a railway line running to the iron ore mine at Sishen were key locational factors. Advantages included the jobs created. The construction phase of the mill employed 9,000 people and the operational phase employs 600 people directly, with a further 2,000 related jobs in the local service economy. Related economic activities have been attracted to the region, which are estimated to have added 10% to local economic growth in the late 1990's Disadvantages were that of the original investment 40% "leaked" overseas to pay for imported industrial technology, and that the end of the construction phase caused unemployment. ...read more.

Conclusion

Many migrants were therefore forced to sell their land and return to the cities looking for work. Thousands of people were forced to find waged labour in local factories or on cattle ranches. In addition to these problems indigenous tribes in the area were threatened by exposure to disease and hundreds of plant and animal species unique to the rich rainforest ecosystem are at risk of extinction. Conclusion This report has shown that both approaches to development have advantages and disadvantages. Bottom-up schemes such as the Hertzog agricultural cooperative help the smaller communities to prosper, but they do not however, improve the complicated infrastructure of a country. Top-down development such as the west coast investment initiative improves the economy of a country but often does not benefit the poorest of people. Sometimes a "bottom up" approach is best; sometimes a "top down" approach may be more beneficial, depending on the situation. Large inequalities in development can only be tackled through bigger projects like the polonoereste project in Brazil, although these often have many problems. Bottom up approaches are more likely to benefit the poorest people but will not solve the problem of poverty on a larger scale. The two approaches are not mutually exclusive. It is suggested that development progress will only be achieved when "top down" meets "bottom up" and there is a working relationship between local organisations and larger investors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Production - Location & Change section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Production - Location & Change essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Scott Report and the Making of the Modern Countryside - 'How penetrating was ...

    5 star(s)

    The Report can also be seen as positive as it increased organisation and efficiency in the countryside. The Second World War and the consequences it brought meant the government could no longer take such a laissez faire attitude to the countryside.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    This project is about the farming in the Bahamas. Areas we are going to ...

    3 star(s)

    Packing Houses ensure that there is more grading and better packaging of farm produce; it also greatly reduces the losses incurred by farmers. Produce is shipped from the family island to the main market center New Providence. Describe the effects and results of poor agricultural practices.

  1. The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its ...

    Food security exists when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences. Food security can be affected by; * Availability or access to arable lands for agriculture * Technology used * Climatic conditions *

  2. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of the use of Fertilisers and Pesticides in Agriculture

    animals and man...There are fears, too, that some pesticides can cause birth defects and cancer in humans15 2) Inaccuracy in application can result in beneficial organisms in the soil and waterways get killed as only a small amount of the spray actually reaches the target pest.

  1. Stadium report. A stadiums presence has a vast range of effects on those in ...

    On a different note, the City of Manchester Stadium has instigated the 'kickz' scheme by which, through community schemes football and outreach work, the local council intend to help young people develop the skills required to contribute to the overall well-being of Beswick.

  2. Industrial Change in South Wales The Reasons for the Original Location of the Iron ...

    It has done this in many ways, stimulating the growth of business in the country, encouraging new companies to invest there, and working with local communities to encourage prosperity. Some of the main advertising points used by the Welsh Development Agency included a skilled workforce, a well-developed infrastructure with modern

  1. The Relationships Between Human Health and Agriculture

    However, it seems reasonable to say that their use in the recent decades has greatly increased yields of the major crops like corn, wheat, and rice, contributing to an increase in the average daily calorie intake of populations, especially in developing countries12.

  2. "Can the theories that Alfred D. Chandler developed in his book 'Scale and Scope: ...

    Thus, the growth industries identified in this paragraph are taken form articles and predictions whose accuracy can barely be controlled and the results derived from them therefore have to be treated with caution. However, some indications can be given about fields with good growth prospects and following this, the ideas

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work