• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19

"Bottom up not top down!" Is this the way ahead for Aid and Investment projects?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Samantha Costelloe "Bottom up not top down!" Is this the way ahead for Aid and Investment projects? Contents 1 Abstract. 2 Introduction 3 Differences between Aid and investment. 4 Definition of terms 5 Types of Aid. 6 Case study- the Hertzog agricultural cooperative, South Africa. 7 Case study- the West coast investment Initiative, South Africa. 8 Case study- Agrarian Foundation of Tochantins - Agraguai (FATA), Brazil. 9 Case study- Export orientated agriculture in Puerto Rico 10 Case study- CIDSE development plan, Vietnam 11 Case study- The Polonoroeste Project, Brazil 12-13 Conclusion 14 Bibliography and methodology 15- Appendix ABSTRACT: In South Africa, agricultural co-operatives have been established to improve the livelihoods of the rural community. At the same time, the government has invested in the steel industry, aiming to create jobs and thereby raise standards of living. In Brazil, small co-operatives have also been established. A contrasting approach to agricultural development is export orientated agriculture in Puerto Rico. In Vietnam, a bottom up approach to developing rural areas is a credit and savings program dedicated at the poorest people. A top down rural development project in brazil aims to create jobs and provide land. Both bottom up and Top down approaches have advantages and disadvantages. ...read more.

Middle

Disadvantages of the scheme are that it only benefits a small group of people, and does not affect the rest of the region. Top down -The West Coast Investment Initiative, South Africa In 1996 South Africa's department of trade and industry established of a number of "spatial development initiatives" (SDI's) across the country, in areas which it identified as having "unlocked economic development potential".1 One SDI, was the West coast investment initiative (WCII), was designated in western Cape Province, located 50km north of Cape Town. The main project of WCII has been the saldanha sands mini mill steel project. The existence of a deep-water harbour and a railway line running to the iron ore mine at Sishen were key locational factors. Advantages included the jobs created. The construction phase of the mill employed 9,000 people and the operational phase employs 600 people directly, with a further 2,000 related jobs in the local service economy. Related economic activities have been attracted to the region, which are estimated to have added 10% to local economic growth in the late 1990's Disadvantages were that of the original investment 40% "leaked" overseas to pay for imported industrial technology, and that the end of the construction phase caused unemployment. ...read more.

Conclusion

Many migrants were therefore forced to sell their land and return to the cities looking for work. Thousands of people were forced to find waged labour in local factories or on cattle ranches. In addition to these problems indigenous tribes in the area were threatened by exposure to disease and hundreds of plant and animal species unique to the rich rainforest ecosystem are at risk of extinction. Conclusion This report has shown that both approaches to development have advantages and disadvantages. Bottom-up schemes such as the Hertzog agricultural cooperative help the smaller communities to prosper, but they do not however, improve the complicated infrastructure of a country. Top-down development such as the west coast investment initiative improves the economy of a country but often does not benefit the poorest of people. Sometimes a "bottom up" approach is best; sometimes a "top down" approach may be more beneficial, depending on the situation. Large inequalities in development can only be tackled through bigger projects like the polonoereste project in Brazil, although these often have many problems. Bottom up approaches are more likely to benefit the poorest people but will not solve the problem of poverty on a larger scale. The two approaches are not mutually exclusive. It is suggested that development progress will only be achieved when "top down" meets "bottom up" and there is a working relationship between local organisations and larger investors. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Production - Location & Change section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Production - Location & Change essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Scott Report and the Making of the Modern Countryside - 'How penetrating was ...

    5 star(s)

    For example counter urbanisation had little to do with the contents of the recommendations. Although the Report wanted to stem the 'drift to the land' the factors that affected this were not a consequence of the recommendations. The Report did not envisage the effect commuters and the elderly would have on rural areas.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    This project is about the farming in the Bahamas. Areas we are going to ...

    3 star(s)

    The government pays the farmer for his produce and then resells it. The produce exchange markets fruits and vegetables to privately owned wholesale and retail outlets on behalf of the government.

  1. The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its ...

    GDP = AGRICULTURE + TOURISM + MINING + MANUFACTURING etc. GNP = AGRICULTURE + TOURISM + MINING + MANUFACTURING etc. + EARNINGS FROM ABROAD Agriculture contributes to the overall wealth of a country by contributing to GNP and GDP. As the contribution from agriculture and other sectors increases the wealthier the country becomes.

  2. Stadium report. A stadiums presence has a vast range of effects on those in ...

    On a different note, the City of Manchester Stadium has instigated the 'kickz' scheme by which, through community schemes football and outreach work, the local council intend to help young people develop the skills required to contribute to the overall well-being of Beswick.

  1. Eco Pack Project

    Industry Analysis Majority of the businesses in Pakistan are converting from the bottle containers of traditional material to plastic substitutes for packaging of their products. The domestic manufacturing of plastic products is growing at 10-15 percent annually. Businesses from different fields are shifting from conventional packaging to PET bottles.

  2. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of the use of Fertilisers and Pesticides in Agriculture

    However although pesticides contain properties able to diminish pests; and therefore resulting in higher yields and food productivity there are many problems that need to dealt with. Most chemicals used as pesticides are toxic and the major argument against their use is the health risk factor and the danger of environmental pollution: 1)

  1. In what ways are banks in developing countries different from banks in financially developed ...

    As described in the chart above, financial intermediaries can soothe market frictions like information costs and transaction costs because of a number of reasons. Banks enjoy economies of scale and hence drive down the individual's transaction costs. Also, their skills in collecting information provide that fewer of their loans default than it would happen in a non-bank environment.

  2. Industrial Change in South Wales The Reasons for the Original Location of the Iron ...

    These generally include the movement of new, modern industries into the area or the improvements of the remaining steel works located in South Wales. One example of the latter is the expansion and redevelopment of the Port Talbot steel works over the past few years; one of only two remaining in the south of Wales.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work