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Built Environment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction In this report I will discuss the Built Environment and its impact on Natural Environment by means of a case study of Glasgow and its suburbs. Also identify the current challenges to the Natural Environment and suggest strategies to manage these, so that current and future Development becomes Sustainable. Firstly, it is necessary to define Natural Environment, Built Environment, Sustainable Development and Climate change. * Natural Environment: The natural environment, generally referred to simply as the environment, it is also a term that comprises all living and non-living things that occur naturally on Earth or some part of it. A complete landscape units that function as natural system without enormous human involvement, including all plants, animals, rocks and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries. A geographical area is regarded as a natural environment if the human impact on it is kept under a certain limited level. This level depends on specific context. General natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear boundaries such as air, water, climate , energy, radiation, electric charge and magnetism not originating from human activity. * Built Environment: The phrase built environment refers to the manmade surroundings that provide the setting for humane activity, ranging from the large scale civic surroundings to the personal places. The expression as well means a small fraction of buildings constructed annually and designed by architects, historically much of the built environment has taken the form of vernacular architecture. In addition the phrase connotes the idea that a large percentage of the human environment is manmade and these artificial surroundings are so extensive and cohesive that they function as organisms in the consumption of the resources, disposal of wastes, and facilitation of productive enterprise within its bounds. * Sustainable Development: Is defined as balancing the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of the natural environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present but in the indefinite future as well. ...read more.

Middle

It is increasingly apparent that the management of urban water Is becoming an issue of greater importance and various flood events have resulted in the perceived effects of climate change becoming more recognised. Glasgow's lack of capacity in its surface water drainage infrastructure is part of a wider national problem caused by decades of under investment. This is currently forcing the agencies with statutory responsibilities to refuse development that would impose additional infrastructure burdens on the system. In recent years, the effect of exhaust pollution from vehicles in Glasgow Has risen to feature as the main cause of air pollution both at 'Ground Level', causing adverse health effects, and 'Upper Atmosphere' contributing to climate change. It has been estimated that in 2003 transport was the second biggest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions after the energy sector and generated 17% of the total Scottish emission 6% rise since 1990. Research Methods Used: The research methods used in this report were wide range of sources. Such as news paper, the internet was very useful and full of the required knowledge. Journals and books were also beneficial. The completion of the report strictly depended on the use of internet, without it, it would have been unmanageable. The web sites used will be listed in details in the references section. Discussion: The parks, river Clyde, trees and greenspace, they all constitute the natural environment in an urban setting such as Glasgow. Glasgow has an extensive greenspace network which accounts for over 20% of the city's total land area and includes: over 70 public parks within the city boundaries and such is the diversity of these parks you will always be able to find somewhere to suit you, woodlands, allotments, 5 sites of special scientific interest, 5 local nature reserves, 70 sites of important for nature conservation, 7 nationally important gardens and designed landscapes. This wealth of resources provides opportunities for the informal enjoyment of nature by the public. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also the introduction of the home energy conservation act (HECA) 1995 had a great impact on the reduction of CO2 emission, as the council actively developed schemes and partnership arrangement to maximise the energy savings, the council is also working to promote the use and development of renewable energy. Reducing the use of fossil fuels by replacing them with renewable sources of energy such as wind, water, solar, and biomass is a key part of tackling global warming. City council claimed to have 7 roof mounted wind turbines have now been installed on council properties with plans to 8 more units. Glasgow council is working to generate electricity from landfill gas and operates on site controls to manage leachate effectively, waste is an important issue thus its being driven by the EU directive which requires a reduction of 36% in the amount of biodegradable municipal waste being sent to landfill on 1995 levels by 2010, with longer target of 75% by 2020. According to SEPA in Glasgow 148,000 in total households are provided recycling services. Since 2004 no landfill in Scotland has been licensed to accept hazardous waste. Hazardous waste producers have responded by: * Replacing hazardous substances with non-hazardous substances so that the waste they produce is also non-hazardous; * Treating their hazardous waste to make it non-hazardous; * Minimising the amount of hazardous waste they generate. Streamline Corridors have been developed across the City to encourage people to use buses or cycle as an alternative to the private car in attempt to reduce harmful gasses emissions. Glasgow commission managed to secure funding to trail a number of vehicles with a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), the benefits that will be derived from this Energy Saving Trust approved system will be a 70-90% decline in oxides of nitrogen emissions as well as a reduction in diesel particulate matter. In my opinion most of the regulation and control measures Glasgow council set out were reasonably effective ofcourse not top-class concerning the resources the council have. ...read more.

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