• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Case Study of The Kobe earthquake.

Extracts from this document...


Case Study: The Kobe earthquake This assessment is about the Kobe earthquake in Japan and the effects of it. Kobe is on the island of Honshu in Japan. The earthquake was called the Great Hanshin Earthquake. An earthquake struck the city of Kobe on 17 January 1995 at 5:46am. The epicentre was on the northern part of Awaji Island (N34.36 E135.02). It depth was 16 kilometres below the earth's surface. The force of the earthquake was 7.3 on the Richter scale, 6 and 7 on the Japanese scale in different areas (Due to a review by the Meteorological Agency on April 23, 2001, magnitude was adjusted from 7.2). The ground motion was vertical and horizontal shaking occurring simultaneously. Three crustal plates meet near to the coast of Japan. Close to Kobe, the bigger oceanic Philippines Plate is disappearing underneath the smaller continental Eurasian Plate. The Japanese islands have been formed from the molten magma released by the melting Philippines Plate. ...read more.


Many more people died in the fires that followed the earthquake. Fire, triggered by broken gas pipes and sparks from severed electrical cables, caused a huge amount of damage, destroying at least 7,500 wooden homes. Often firemen could not reach them because roads were blocked. And often they ran out of water because water mains had burst. The blocked streets made rescue difficult too. Thousands of victims were left in the cold without food, water or shelter, waiting for help. Office blocks built in the 1960's of steel and concrete frequently collapsed in the middle so that a whole floor was crushed but the rooms above and below remained intact. Modern buildings, designed to be earthquake proof, did quite well on the whole and suffered little damage. The Statistics of the earthquake below shows a table of the victims: Higashi Nada Nada Chuo Hyogo Nagata Suma Tarumi Nishi Kita Total Dead 1,471 933 244 555 919 401 25 11 12 4,571 Evacuees (Peak) ...read more.


The next table below shows the amount of houses that had fully collapsed (houses whose damage to supporting structures (walls, pillars, beams, roof, stairs) amounts to more than 50% of the current value of the house) and that had half collapsed (houses whose damage to supporting structures (walls, pillars, beams, roof, stairs) amounts to between 20 - 50% of the current value of the house). The table on the previous page at the bottom shows the amount of houses collapsed and the amount of houses burned. There was around 4 600 deaths, 15 000 injured, 75 000 buildings in ruins, 55 000 buildings badly damaged (including many schools) and roads and railways were torn apart. The cost was around �200 billion. The main reasons for the high death toll was that the buildings were too old and couldn't stand that size of earthquake. The emergency services kept getting blocked by telegraph poles, trees and buildings. They are both important reasons because the emergency services couldn't get to the places they were meant to be and the old buildings crush people to death. By Leigh Clements ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Mount St. Helens - Natural disasters.

    Additional instruments are slated to be installed over the next few days. The scientists refer to the observation post as "Coldwater" (later referred to as "Coldwater I," following the establishment of a second observation post 4 miles north of the crater called "Coldwater II").

  2. Volcano Assessment.

    When these waves reach the surface, they create earthquakes. Places near plate edges, such as South-East Europe and the Pacific coast, repeatedly suffer major earthquakes. The San Andreas Fault marks the boundary between two giant plates and there have been several devastating quakes here. San Francisco and Los Angeles in California, America are built near this fault line and both cities have experienced terrifying earthquakes.

  1. Kobe Earthquake - A Case Study.

    it left 300,000 homeless. It was not only building s that where damaged during the quake, matters were made worse when rescue operations were hindered by roads, railways and other modes of transport all being damaged. Kobe is actually situated on a strip of flat land between high mountains and the sea.

  2. The Kobe Earthquake

    The only way to travel around the city was to use the smaller roads that were at ground level, but many were closed by either fallen debris from buildings or cracks and bumps caused by the ground moving. In some places sections of the roads and pavements had been pushed

  1. The origin of the Earth

    neither created nor destroyed, but is redistributed and transformed from one rock type to another. Petrology, the study of rocks and their origins, is essentially the formal process by which we resolve the interrelationships expressed in the rock cycle. Liquid (molten)

  2. On Tuesday, January 17, at 5:46 a.m. local time, an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 ...

    Massive liquefaction and lateral spreading took place in areas of reclaimed land and on the many artificial islands in the city of Kobe and Nishinomiya. Ejected sand from liquefaction covered much of the islands and interfered with rescue and recovery operations.

  1. Volcanic and seismic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that plate-tectonics theory ...

    continents where Marine, nonmarine and glacial rock sequeneces of Pennsulvanian to Jurassic ages are almost identical on all 5 Gondwana continents strongly indicating tat they were all once joined together. The trends of several mountain ranges also support the concept of ?continental drift?.

  2. Japan 2011 Earthquake Case Study

    Marianas trench. In this same area the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the Philippine plate. Factors that contributed to the vunerability: Off Sendai there is a very old oceanic crust which is cooler and denser, it was assumed that the crust would easily slide into the mantle so only small earthquakes are predicted.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work