• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Case Study of The Kobe earthquake.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Case Study: The Kobe earthquake This assessment is about the Kobe earthquake in Japan and the effects of it. Kobe is on the island of Honshu in Japan. The earthquake was called the Great Hanshin Earthquake. An earthquake struck the city of Kobe on 17 January 1995 at 5:46am. The epicentre was on the northern part of Awaji Island (N34.36 E135.02). It depth was 16 kilometres below the earth's surface. The force of the earthquake was 7.3 on the Richter scale, 6 and 7 on the Japanese scale in different areas (Due to a review by the Meteorological Agency on April 23, 2001, magnitude was adjusted from 7.2). The ground motion was vertical and horizontal shaking occurring simultaneously. Three crustal plates meet near to the coast of Japan. Close to Kobe, the bigger oceanic Philippines Plate is disappearing underneath the smaller continental Eurasian Plate. The Japanese islands have been formed from the molten magma released by the melting Philippines Plate. ...read more.

Middle

Many more people died in the fires that followed the earthquake. Fire, triggered by broken gas pipes and sparks from severed electrical cables, caused a huge amount of damage, destroying at least 7,500 wooden homes. Often firemen could not reach them because roads were blocked. And often they ran out of water because water mains had burst. The blocked streets made rescue difficult too. Thousands of victims were left in the cold without food, water or shelter, waiting for help. Office blocks built in the 1960's of steel and concrete frequently collapsed in the middle so that a whole floor was crushed but the rooms above and below remained intact. Modern buildings, designed to be earthquake proof, did quite well on the whole and suffered little damage. The Statistics of the earthquake below shows a table of the victims: Higashi Nada Nada Chuo Hyogo Nagata Suma Tarumi Nishi Kita Total Dead 1,471 933 244 555 919 401 25 11 12 4,571 Evacuees (Peak) ...read more.

Conclusion

The next table below shows the amount of houses that had fully collapsed (houses whose damage to supporting structures (walls, pillars, beams, roof, stairs) amounts to more than 50% of the current value of the house) and that had half collapsed (houses whose damage to supporting structures (walls, pillars, beams, roof, stairs) amounts to between 20 - 50% of the current value of the house). The table on the previous page at the bottom shows the amount of houses collapsed and the amount of houses burned. There was around 4 600 deaths, 15 000 injured, 75 000 buildings in ruins, 55 000 buildings badly damaged (including many schools) and roads and railways were torn apart. The cost was around �200 billion. The main reasons for the high death toll was that the buildings were too old and couldn't stand that size of earthquake. The emergency services kept getting blocked by telegraph poles, trees and buildings. They are both important reasons because the emergency services couldn't get to the places they were meant to be and the old buildings crush people to death. By Leigh Clements ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Mount St. Helens - Natural disasters.

    They estimate that because of the extensive network of logging roads, they would need as many as 29 roadblocks and 175 officers to completely block off access. Nolan Lewis, Director of Cowlitz County Emergency Services, was quoted in the Tacoma News Tribune, "I just can't fathom it, people are swarming in from all over, putting their lives in danger...

  2. Kobe Earthquake - A Case Study.

    it left 300,000 homeless. It was not only building s that where damaged during the quake, matters were made worse when rescue operations were hindered by roads, railways and other modes of transport all being damaged. Kobe is actually situated on a strip of flat land between high mountains and the sea.

  1. The Kobe Earthquake

    The Port of Kobe, much of which was new, was devastated by widespread and severe liquefaction and/or permanent ground deformation, which destroyed more than 90% of the port's 187 berths and damaged or destroyed most large cranes. Shipping was be disrupted for many months, and some shipping business never returned to Kobe, resulting in significant losses to the local economy.

  2. Volcano Assessment.

    In some places, where they are pulling apart and making the sea floor spread, they are called divergence zones. In other places where they are shoving up against each other and crumpling the edges or driving one another down into the Earth's interior, they are called convergence zones.

  1. The origin of the Earth

    Liquid (molten) rock material solidifies at depth or at the earth's surface to form igneous rocks. Uplift and exposure of rocks at the Earth's surface destabilizes these mineral structures (c.f. Bowen's Reaction Series). The minerals break down into smaller grains, which are transported and deposited (either from solution or by lowering the hydraulic energy regime)

  2. On Tuesday, January 17, at 5:46 a.m. local time, an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 ...

    Massive liquefaction and lateral spreading took place in areas of reclaimed land and on the many artificial islands in the city of Kobe and Nishinomiya. Ejected sand from liquefaction covered much of the islands and interfered with rescue and recovery operations.

  1. Volcanic and seismic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that plate-tectonics theory ...

    These mountain ranges seemingly end at the coastline of one continent only to apparently continue on another continent across the ocean. The folded Appalachian Mountains of North America, for example, trend north eastward through the eastern United States and Canada and terminate abruptly at the Newfoundland coastline.

  2. Japan 2011 Earthquake Case Study

    Warping of the pacific plate means that it gets stuck rather than sliding smoothly into the mantle causing pressure build up. Rugged Ria coastline, many inlets caused tsunami waves to be concentrated, causing waves to encroach further. 70% of Japan is mountainous, making settlements cramped into narrow low lying coastal areas.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work