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Changes Made By The Industrial Revolution.

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Changes Made By The Industrial Revolution In mid 18th century Britain, 7 million people lived in small rural villages. Farming was the main occupation for workers at this time. Apart from London there were no cities and no factories. Woollen cloth, coal mining and iron were main industries. The years between 1750 - 1850 are known as the First Industrial Revolution. In this period of time, the population of Britain trebled to 21 million people. In 1850 coal mining, iron and steel, cotton, wool and shipbuilding were now the most important industries. Between 1850 - 1880, Britain was the world's leading industrial country, sometimes called 'The Workshop Of The World'. By 1880 USA, and Germany began to challenge Britain and with the industry still growing, now producing cars, bicycles, electrical engineering and chemicals, this was now called The Second Industrial Revolution. In the early 18th century woollen cloth was the most important industry in Britain. ...read more.


The industry needed better roads. It had to gain more raw materials, like coal, iron ore and wool - to workshops and factories. It also needed to get finished goods as well, like cloth to its markets. From about 1810 better roads brought a boom in stagecoach travel. A journey from London to York, which took 5 days in 1750, took only 1 day in 1840. Coaching came to an end in 1840, and was replaced by more efficient and reliable transport such as canals and the railways. Gottlieb Daimler built the first petrol drive car in 1883, which revived the transport with better road surfaces invented by men such as John Macaden. Rail had longed been used to carry heavy vehicles. It had always been the fastest way of travel. The railways always helped industry to take goods from one place to another. The railways were always a much more efficient mode of transport than the canals, so like the coaches they died out as well. ...read more.


The water supply was another problem; the homes of the poor had no taps so they had to use the public water, which was extremely dirty. Sewage and rubbish disposal were main problems as well, because the sanitation in Britain at this time was poor. Of course not everyone lived in the city, the countryside was much cleaner and safer. Health was a major problem. Infectious disease thrived through towns. In 1840 one in six children died before their first birthday, one in three before they reached 5. Typhoid was spread in infected water; bacteria coughed into the air carried tuberculosis, typhus was a virus spread by lice. In 1831 a new killer disease appeared: cholera came into Sunderland from abroad. Better medical treatments happened in 1847 by Dr James Simpson who had developed chloroform as an anesthetic for surgeons to carry out more complicated operations. A mixture of new laws and medical progress started to reduce the worst of the health problems in the towns. Simon Wood 9PC ...read more.

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