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Changing Locational Factors of Manufacturing Industry In the 20th century the factors affecting the location of industry within the UK changed

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Introduction

1. Changing Locational Factors of Manufacturing Industry In the 20th century the factors affecting the location of industry within the UK changed. This can be seen as a change from an emphasis on physical factors affecting the location of manufacturing industries, such as raw materials, to an emphasis on more human and economic factors, such as labour and transport. The growth of manufacturing in the UK began in the 18th and 19th centuries during the Industrial Revolution, making Great Britain one of the most industrialised countries in the world. However, into the 20th century Britain's greatly developed manufacturing industry steadily declined. There were many reasons for this de-industrialisation and it caused a change of emphasis from secondary industries (those involved in the manufacturing of goods) to quaternary industries (those involved with the manufacture of high-technology goods). These new, light industries used far fewer raw materials, than the old, heavy industries of the Industrial Revolution, and they had a much smaller reliance on bulky, heavy raw materials, such as coal. This meant that a resource-based location was not necessary as it was for the 19th century manufacturing industries, which were located close to their raw materials to prevent difficult and expensive transport. ...read more.

Middle

meaning that the transporting of raw materials, components and finished products around the country is not only easier, but also much cheaper. This reduction in transport costs has meant that a location close to raw materials and components is no longer necessary. However, an increasingly important locational factor is the need to locate on a site with excellent transport links. This locational factor is especially significant for the newer high-tech industries, which require a large number of components often made in separate locations to reach the site. Although transport costs for these quaternary industries are relatively insignificant, good transport links are essential to coordinate the various activities well. Towards the end of the 20th century, an increasing number of these quaternary industries began to group together in science parks, research parks and industrial estates. This is an example of the multiplier effect, where one quaternary industry investing in a region, attracts other industries and other forms of economic development into the area. The high-tech manufacturing firms clump together in these parks to share research and information between companies, as well as a pool of highly skilled labour. ...read more.

Conclusion

These areas are more popular for quaternary industries because of the excellent transport links, the nearby top universities, the close proximity to large cities, a pleasant environment and the nearby government research laboratories for up-to-date information and research. Therefore, the 20th century saw the decline of manufacturing in the traditional 19th century locations, and its growth in new locations along the M4 corridor, M11 corridor, Honda Valley in South Wales, Cambridge Area and Silicon Glen in Scotland. The 20th century also saw the growth of new science parks, research parks and industrial estates in areas throughout the UK, where quaternary industries clump together so they are able to share information and research, as well as a pool of highly skilled labour. For example, Keele Research Centre, Aston Science Park, University of Warwick Science Park and Merseyside Innovation Centre. The location of manufacturing industries within urban areas has also changed during the 20th century. Older 19th century factories were generally located in the inner city areas of cities. However, during the 20th century these industries declined drastically and any modern industries began to locate out of the inner city areas, at locations on the outskirts of the city. These areas provided better transport links and a more pleasant environment. Modern industrial estates also began to emerge on the rural-urban fringe. ...read more.

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