• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cholera - its global impact

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Cholera Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera, which usually spreads through contaminated water. It affects the absorption of water in the small intestine and in severe cases produces severe diarrhoea. The most dangerous aspect of Cholera is the immense loss of fluid that can occur within a few days. Without treatment within 24 hours of developing the disease, the loss of fluid can be fatal. Many cases, such as those in Zimbabwe, require hospitalisation of infected people so that fluids can be administered straight into the bloodstream with the use of a drip. Cholera bacteria occur naturally in coastal waters, where they attach to tiny crustaceans called Copepods. The Cholera bacteria travel with the Copepods, spreading worldwide as the crustaceans follow their food sources, which are certain types of algae and plankton. These grow rapidly when the water temperatures rise and algae growth is further increased by the urea found in sewage and agricultural runoff. ...read more.

Middle

Cholera outbreaks in Zimbabwe have occurred annually since 1998, but previous epidemics have never reached these proportions. The last large outbreak was in 1992 with 3000 cases recorded. The main cause of the outbreak was the lack of access to safe water in urban areas. This was due to the collapse of the urban water supply, sanitation and rubbish collection systems. Also the rainy season leads to faeces with cholera bacteria being washed into water sources, in particular public drains, providing readily available but contaminated water. The areas affected have been demonstrating weaknesses in case management and/or infection control practices. Potential causes of the high fatality rate that must be addressed are: 1. delays in people seeking treatment: 2. poor accessibility to health facilities: 3. gaps in case management: and 4. Inadequate infection control. Cholera cases have also been reported either side of Zimbabwe's border with South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique, which demonstrates the sub regional extent of the outbreak. ...read more.

Conclusion

2. Decrease mortality by: * Ensuring early case detection; * Improving access to health care; * Ensuring adequate care, including feeding support. This approach will involve close partnership with public health authorities in Zimbabwe and neighbouring countries, as well as nongovernmental organizations and United Nations agencies including UNICEF. An Inter-Agency Rapid Assessment Team is going to be established to investigate and confirm outbreaks. The emphasis is going to be on rapidly addressing the known risk factors for cholera transmission. The immediate priorities include: * Standardized case reporting to understand the distribution of Cholera and guide treatment priorities * Ensuring access to safe water and sanitation; * Standardized case management to reduce mortality; * Producing treatment and prevention materials, as well as prevention messaging campaigns to lessen the risk to populations. The total cost of health response activities for three months is 2 million dollars, which includes the supply of: * Cholera and diarrhoeal disease kits; * Emergency health kits; * Water purification equipment; * 10 portable laboratory kits for diagnosis; * Personnel (including for epidemiological control and Health Cluster coordination); * Cholera treatment training. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

An excellent overview of Cholera using a specific case study. This answer would benefit from a conclusion and referencing.
4 Stars.

Marked by teacher Molly Reynolds 07/08/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Volcanic & Seismic events are major factors towards proving that the plate tectonics theory ...

    the crust that can explain the movement, such as the semi-molten mantle allowing convection currents to take place.

  2. Describe the global distribution of earthquakes.

    high population density will suffer greater loss than a more economically developed area which has better education, more stable buildings and emergency plans as well as sufficient communication. The intensity of an earthquake is a more reliable source of evidence as to how destructive an earthquake has been.

  1. Tsunami - 26/12/04 - Causes, impact, and management

    The movement has been going on for a thousand years, one plate pushing against the other until something has to give. The result of this build up of pressure happened on December 26 was a rupture in the earths crust which was estimated more than 600 miles (1,000 kilometres)

  2. Title : The Determination of Microbial Numbers Objectives:Practically every phase of microbiology requires ...

    Calculation: For plate A of 10-4 dilution, = 40 � 10 000 = 400 000 bacteria mL-1 Discussions: In the experiment, a few methods were introduced to make us convenient in direct measure the microbial growth. The approach we are using called viable count which means a direct counting method in which only viable cells are counted.

  1. Natural disasters are happening more often, and having an ever more dramatic impact on ...

    From 1999 to 2003, this figure shot up by two-thirds to an average of 707 natural disasters each year. The biggest rise occurred in developing countries, which suffered an increase of 142 percent. In 2003, there were approximately 700 natural disasters, which killed an estimated 75,000 people and caused about

  2. Earthquakes don't kill people. Buildings do!

    Areas of lateral crust movement in continental regions cause mainly shallow earthquakes, and example of this is the San Andreas fault in the USA. Although with all of this said some 15% of earthquakes occur in stable continental crust.

  1. California and the Phillippines - Hazard Hotspots and Human Management of Risks

    * Cross Bracing: This is when steel supports are put in place diagonally. This gives it more strength as a result it does not fail during an earthquake. Such techniques are now used in most buildings including San Franciso?s One Rincon Hill building.

  2. To what extent is magnitude the main factor to influence the type and level ...

    In order to do this I will go through the case studies from Chile 2010. The final factor I will go through is Geographical Characteristics where I will examine how the outlay of the land has an impact on the size of the event and to properly asses this I

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work