• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Cities of the future have to deal with problems created now and in the past" Evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies for tackling these problems using cities of your choice.

Extracts from this document...


"Cities of the future have to deal with problems created now and in the past" Evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies for tackling these problems using cities of your choice. These strategies should include CBD regeneration, slum clearance, urban renewal, and self-help schemes. The world in the 21st century is becoming increasingly urban; it was suggested that in 1800 only 3% of the world's population lived in urban areas, but according to recent UN estimates, it is estimated that 60% of the world's population will be living in urban areas before the year 2025 (Waugh, 2000). It is true that "cities of the future have to deal with problems created now and in the past"; if problems are not dealt with while they are budding, otherwise they growth, increase in severity and can lead to more and more problems. Urbanisation is "the process by which an increasing proportion of the total population...lives in towns or cities" (Waugh, 2000). This process occurs because of the increasing uncertainty of a steady living in rural areas, and because of the alluring perceived opportunities available in the cities. Urbanisation in LEDC's, when thrown in a negative light, are the cause of overpopulation in urban areas, overcrowded housing, the introduction of shantytowns, severe pollution, increasing crime and prostitution, and the list continues. ...read more.


A 'green belt' - a strip of land which mainly consists of national parks and protected areas where no housing could be built - was introduced in an effort to preserve some natural areas for farming and recreational purposes. In the outer areas of Chicago (McHenry County), it seems that "farming is a thing of the past in [that] zone" because there is an escalating number of housing developments to accommodate for these commuters in a previously rural district. One way to slow down the urban sprawl is to make the city more attractive, to improve the housing in the city. 'CBD regeneration' is the process of improving (not replacing) older housing by adding basic amenities such as bathrooms, kitchens, indoor toilets and hot water systems - also known as gentrification. That is, the outer shell of the house is kept (possibly for heritage reasons) but the interior is completely redone. The government may encourage this to reduce counter-urbanisation. A local example of CBD regeneration is Richmond, Melbourne. Low-income workers in industry previously inhabited this area, thus housing was poor and very closely packed. The area deteriorated with time, and became an undesirable area to live in. In recent years (within the last 15 to 20 years) houses in the suburb have been bought and modernised with renovations, and is now seen as a relatively attractive area occupied by wealthy families. ...read more.


The only possible motive for slum clearance is to relocate these people to government housing or to encourage them to return to their origins. Self-help schemes are common in LEDC's where the government cannot afford to finance major rehousing schemes. Usually in a self-help housing scheme, the government provides basic amenities, and building materials at a cheaper price. It is then up to the people to build their own houses. When a collection of houses is built, a public tap and toilet are installed. Dandora in Nairobi is an example of such a scheme. In other countries such as Mexico, there is financial assistance given to those on lower-incomes who want to own their own house. Without this assistance, these people would not be able to own their own homes. Current state housing programmers are encouraging those who live in inner-city shanties to move to self-help housing on the fringe of the city. Even in Los Angeles, the government is spending US$200 million for low-cost housing loans to encourage people (in particular immigrants) to buy their own homes so that they are not forced to live in inner-city shanties. Advantages of these schemes are that people find a sense of pride in their home, are financially better off, and can create a stronger community bond (people often ask their neighbours for assistance in construction). 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Population & Settlement section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Population & Settlement essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Outline and Evaluate Hardin's 'Lifeboat Ethics'.

    5 star(s)

    a terrible understanding of the global economy and an equally bad understanding of the effects of his proposals. The rich lifeboats cannot simply leave others to drown and sail away from the problem. It will not go away, nor will it improve.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    How successful are the regeneration schemes in Liverpool?

    4 star(s)

    As more and more people moved, more houses became into disrepair. This is why Liverpool needs regeneration schemes, to bring new people back into the city boundaries and the centre. The second graph tells us that this has been happening.

  1. Examples of Problems of ELDCs and how they are attempted to be solved

    It grows and develops constantly, size wise, population increase, and in terms of economic growth and progress as well. Jakarta, however, has serious problems to do with the development and welfare of its city.

  2. Geography revision - flooding - Urbanisation - Population problems

    Effects: Pollution levels increase particularly respiratory diseases. There are more fatal road accidents, more congestion, and more road rage, so people don't want to live in Peterborough, as well as the added costs for the city. Bus services have few users, so decrease in quality of service, range of service and so less people can use the buses.

  1. London Docklands - Has the regeneration been a success or a failure?

    an ecology park was created at Bow Creek and a wildfowl sanctuary at East India Dock Basin. To ignite the need of a more attractive environment, 160,000 trees have been planted in various places. 483 acres of Enterprise zone were build near the isle of Dogs.

  2. Does quality of life increase as one moves away from CBD of Swansea?

    The area of Newton has received the highest mark of 2 for all the twelve categories in the survey. Thus, supporting the hypothesis that as one moves away from the CBD of Swansea the quality of life improves. The housing design and layout is very attractive, individual and very spacious,

  1. To what extent are the problems created by rapid recent urban growth in LEDC's ...

    The high demand for space in central areas pushes up property and land prices. As businesses increase in size and number the area covered by the CBD will expand, therefore causing residential areas to increase in size, as the workforce of these companies will live nearby.

  2. Walk from the outer suburbs of Walsall, into the inner city, to see how ...

    We walked along the transect, and stopped at points 1-9 as we walked, and stopped, I filled in recording sheets, and took photos at each point, we ended up in the CBD and answered our questionnaires, by asking people who were in the CBD.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work