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"Cities of the future have to deal with problems created now and in the past" Evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies for tackling these problems using cities of your choice.

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Introduction

"Cities of the future have to deal with problems created now and in the past" Evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies for tackling these problems using cities of your choice. These strategies should include CBD regeneration, slum clearance, urban renewal, and self-help schemes. The world in the 21st century is becoming increasingly urban; it was suggested that in 1800 only 3% of the world's population lived in urban areas, but according to recent UN estimates, it is estimated that 60% of the world's population will be living in urban areas before the year 2025 (Waugh, 2000). It is true that "cities of the future have to deal with problems created now and in the past"; if problems are not dealt with while they are budding, otherwise they growth, increase in severity and can lead to more and more problems. Urbanisation is "the process by which an increasing proportion of the total population...lives in towns or cities" (Waugh, 2000). This process occurs because of the increasing uncertainty of a steady living in rural areas, and because of the alluring perceived opportunities available in the cities. Urbanisation in LEDC's, when thrown in a negative light, are the cause of overpopulation in urban areas, overcrowded housing, the introduction of shantytowns, severe pollution, increasing crime and prostitution, and the list continues. ...read more.

Middle

A 'green belt' - a strip of land which mainly consists of national parks and protected areas where no housing could be built - was introduced in an effort to preserve some natural areas for farming and recreational purposes. In the outer areas of Chicago (McHenry County), it seems that "farming is a thing of the past in [that] zone" because there is an escalating number of housing developments to accommodate for these commuters in a previously rural district. One way to slow down the urban sprawl is to make the city more attractive, to improve the housing in the city. 'CBD regeneration' is the process of improving (not replacing) older housing by adding basic amenities such as bathrooms, kitchens, indoor toilets and hot water systems - also known as gentrification. That is, the outer shell of the house is kept (possibly for heritage reasons) but the interior is completely redone. The government may encourage this to reduce counter-urbanisation. A local example of CBD regeneration is Richmond, Melbourne. Low-income workers in industry previously inhabited this area, thus housing was poor and very closely packed. The area deteriorated with time, and became an undesirable area to live in. In recent years (within the last 15 to 20 years) houses in the suburb have been bought and modernised with renovations, and is now seen as a relatively attractive area occupied by wealthy families. ...read more.

Conclusion

The only possible motive for slum clearance is to relocate these people to government housing or to encourage them to return to their origins. Self-help schemes are common in LEDC's where the government cannot afford to finance major rehousing schemes. Usually in a self-help housing scheme, the government provides basic amenities, and building materials at a cheaper price. It is then up to the people to build their own houses. When a collection of houses is built, a public tap and toilet are installed. Dandora in Nairobi is an example of such a scheme. In other countries such as Mexico, there is financial assistance given to those on lower-incomes who want to own their own house. Without this assistance, these people would not be able to own their own homes. Current state housing programmers are encouraging those who live in inner-city shanties to move to self-help housing on the fringe of the city. Even in Los Angeles, the government is spending US$200 million for low-cost housing loans to encourage people (in particular immigrants) to buy their own homes so that they are not forced to live in inner-city shanties. Advantages of these schemes are that people find a sense of pride in their home, are financially better off, and can create a stronger community bond (people often ask their neighbours for assistance in construction). 1 ...read more.

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