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Coastal erosion problems in Walton on the Naze

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Introduction

Introduction. The reason for doing this piece of coursework is to investigate the coastal erosion problems in Walton on the Naze. In this project I will be answering one main question: What should be done about the erosion of the Naze? Walton on the Naze is a seaside resort along the coast of Essex just 8 miles south of Harwich, it is the most easterly part of the Essex coastline and it is surrounded by the North Sea. Walton is situated in southeast England and in north Essex, near Clacton (11km direct), Colchester (27km direct), and Brightlingsea (19km direct). It is a small English seaside town with a pier and a sandy beach. The Naze itself is about 1.5 miles north of Walton pier. The Naze is a promontory that stretches northwards from the edge of Walton. It separates the inlet of Walton channel to the west, from the North Sea to the east. Part of the Naze is made up of a hill, which is being eroded by the sea so that cliffs, up to 20 metres high rise directly from the beach. It is a small English seaside town with a pier and a sandy beach. The Naze itself is about 1.5 miles north of Walton pier. In 1977 large defence work, including a sea wall and breakwaters, were undertaken on the southern part of the Naze to protect the cliff top properties. The unprotected length of coastline runs from the Tower Break water northwards for approximately 1,000 meters to the start of the old Anglian Water Authority floodwall. The cliffs decrease in height northwards from 20 meters to 4 meters. The cliffs are made up of sand and gravel deposits that lay on top of London clay and it is because of this geological arrangement that the cliffs are so unstable. Water percolates through the permeable sand and gravel until it reaches the impermeable London clay. ...read more.

Middle

There is a nature reserve and many species of plants and animals live there. The pillboxes that you see on the wave cut platform were at the top of the cliff in 1945 when they were built and now they are 60 metres east of the bottom of the cliff. If you look south of the tower breakwater there is no erosion. You can see the groynes, sea wall and cliff regarding here. All this work has been done as people live here, where as there are no houses and no people living where the cliff is unmanaged Side High tide (m) Mid tide (M) Low tide (M) 1. North 2.37 1.95 1.20 South 1.70 1.65 1.00 2. North 3.02 1.95 1.00 South 1.75 1.36 0.73 3. North 2.15 1.67 1.06 South 0.65 1.23 0.76 4. North 1.80 1.35 0.50 South 1.04 1.00 0.27 5. North 0.14 0.75 1.53 South 0.79 1.57 1.04 Longshore drift: the results of my longshore drift survey show that there was a build up of sand on the south side of the groyne. Groynes prevent coastal erosion (longshore drift) as it holds the sand and therefore stops the waves from hitting the cliff. Where there are no groynes the sea hits the exposed cliff and it undercuts it through hydraulic action and then the cliff crumbles away. The more longshore drift the more erosion of the cliff. Along the breakwater the highest build up of sand is on the nearest point of the breakwater to the cliff or sea wall on the south side. It also shows this on my graph (figure11& 12) Longshore drift is a problem as it undercuts the cliff and it erodes the cliff back by about 2 meters a year. Groynes prevent costal erosion, as the long shore drift cannot hit the cliff, as the groynes take out the power in the waves. The groynes have been built at an angle so the long shore drift had moved the sand and the sand have been gently pushed up between the breakwaters. ...read more.

Conclusion

We could have also taken more samples and at different times of the year and made a comparison between the two. In my opinion the long shore drift results were fine, as we took a measurement from the top middle and bottom of the groyne and on each of the north and south sides. I thought that the cross section results could have been more accurate as the wind could have blown the angle measurer. A solution to this is to use an electronic angle measurer. We also had to estimate the angle on the top of the unmanaged cliff because it was too dangerous and we were not able to climb the cliff. A solution to not estimating this is to climb the cliff( with safety protection) and to use an electronic angle measurer. For the questionnaire I asked only 10 people in the same day if I were to ask this again I would ask at least 100 people and I would ask people at different times of the year for example in the summer holidays and in the winter. 2. Possible improvements: To improve my results I would use more sophisticated equipment such as an electronic angle measurer for measuring the angles of the cliff. I would also hire people to do the work for me so I would be able to get more accurate results, in a shorter length of time. I would also do a door-to-door survey, so I could get more questionnaire results and they would be of what the people next to the sea and people a bit further away from the sea and make a comparison on the two results. I would also take more measurements at different times of the year that were accurate and I could make a better comparison between the results. I would also take more long shore drift measurements. I could have also done my write up a bit quicker. We could have also returned to the Naze and taken more measurements. 1 1 ...read more.

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