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Compare and contrast how urbanization has effected two contrasting regions and consider their future developments.

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Introduction

Compare and contrast how urbanization has effected two contrasting regions and consider their future developments. Urbanization is the process of change from a rural society in which people live scattered across the landscape to an urban society where people are concentrated in thickly populated nodes. The two areas that will be used to show how urbanization effects two contrasting regions, are Hong Kong and Birmingham. Hong Kong has developed from a small fishing community, into a thriving port, it was Hong Kong's status as a colonial port that has allowed it to develop and industrialize and prosper despite the lack of any significant resources, Hong Kong's Location is it's resource. The West midlands, Birmingham which at its industrial height became known as the Black Country. This industrialized because it had the cheap labour and was ideally situated, near the necessary raw materials with good transport links. Allowing it to become an industrial center. Urbanization is caused by a growth in population, this is often initially due to rural to urban migration. This pattern of migration can be due to a number of factors. The population in the rural areas may have increased passed the natural carrying capacity of the land, forcing people to move in order to avoid starvation. ...read more.

Middle

Large estates of semi detached housing were built during the 1920's-30's these lacked amenities and services such as doctors clinics. In some privately owned estates, where building and development was restricted such as Calthorope family estate. This area is now mainly residential with trees and parks. As Birmingham spread outwards former separate villages such as. Erdinton, Stechford and Harborne, were swallowed by new urban growth. Industrial districts developed further away from the city centre, because the cost of land was cheaper here and they needed more space, to expand. Causing growth in the suburbs. Large council estates built in the 1920's, furthered the urban sprawl. 1920-1930 a was a time of massive house building, by both private and council developers. Hong Kong developed in a similar way in terms of housing, first shanty towns developed, then the council build large blocks of flats, in response to the demand for cheap accommodation. Most housing is now is either privately developed or provided by the council. Birimham sprawled much more than Hong Kong, which grew much higher as the land was not made available in the same way. In order to house Hong Kong growing population large towns were created to provide housing (government created). The government made sure the services and transport to these towns were good e.g. Tseung Kwan O near junk bay and Sha Tin. ...read more.

Conclusion

The falling demand due to over seas competition, old outdated technology still in use, and depleted resource base caused the cost of operating foundries and iron/steel works to become uneconomical this inevitably lead to the decline in the smokestack industries. Resulting in the labour force being displaced causing high employment, creating the threat of services and active population moving to more prosperous areas. Both Hong Kong and Birmingham developed into larger settlements because of trade, and then continued to grow in response to the demand to specialize in commerce and industry. Urbanization occurred fastest along the roads in Birmingham, as so much of the land was owned by priverate land owners, Birmingham and other towns and cities in the black country experienced a more organic urban sprawl. Hong Kong, where the roads ran along the water front as it was too step else where. Commerce only really came with the New Territories because of the new supply of available land, and the influx of people from China; which occurred in 1950 because of the Cultural Revolution. Government control of land has limited urban sprawl. The land has been sold in small packages limiting the areas available to urbanize. Businesses that once operated in Hong Kong have moved into the mainland because of cheaper labour but have maintained their headquaters in Hong Kong which has revered primarily of commerce as there is no longer cheap labour. ...read more.

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