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Compare the effects of droughts on both DCs and LDCs. Assess the strategies used to predict, mitigate and respond to the effects of droughts in these countries.

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Introduction

Compare the effects of droughts on both DCs and LDCs. Assess the strategies used to predict, mitigate and respond to the effects of droughts in these countries. (16) Droughts impact both developed and developing countries but their effects vary due to localized differences. While droughts seldom lead to fatalities in developed countries, in developing countries droughts can cause fatalities. Drought in India has resulted in tens of millions of deaths over the course of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries.In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines such as the Bengal famine of 1943, in which over five million died from starvation and famine-related illnesses. In Mozambique in Southern Africa, the 1982-83 drought was considered the worst in 50 years and led to many deaths. While fatalities resulting from drought have been reduced greatly in recent decades, the extent of impact remains great. ...read more.

Middle

The effects of droughts are most felt in developing countries due to the sheer size of agriculture. For example in India, more than 80% of the population is dependent on agriculture, therefore when droughts occur, most people are affected. Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on the climate of India: a favorable southwest summer monsoon is critical in securing water for irrigating Indian crops. This is also due to the various strategies or lack of strategies in countries. Developed countries are equipped with tools to prevent water scarcity. Desalination of sea water for irrigation or consumption is rather widely used in countries such as United States and Spain. US also recycles water - former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated and purified for reuse. Such equipments are rarely adopted by countries such as Bangladesh and Brazil as they require significant funds. In addition, developed countries also have effective mitigative tools. ...read more.

Conclusion

In Kenya, some 2.5 million people (10% of the population)require food aid over the next six months. The relief efforts provided each time while alleviating the impact, has not helped in future drought mitigation. As such they remain vulnerable to droughts. In some developing countries too, certain construction, usually for economic purposes, can exacerbate droughts. For example in Bangledesh, upstream withdrawal of water for economic and household uses mostly divert dry season flow of rivers, contributes to drought condition in NW and SW Bangladesh. In conclusion, the effects in developing countries are more greatly felt than in developed countries. While drought management has been stepped up in developing countries, they are mainly on relief efforts, there should be increased efforts in drought monitoring and long term management strategies. There is an encouraging sign of that such as the ' Drought Assessment and Mitigation in Southwest Asia' project by the IWMI. ...read more.

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