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Consider the role of international migration of population as a factor moulding the social, economic and environmental geography of nations.

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Introduction

Consider the role of international migration of population as a factor moulding the social, economic and environmental geography of nations. In the modern world with cheap air flights and more links, migration has become increasingly popular and its effect more and more precedent. Migration is the movement of people with a permanent change of address. Migration involves the seasonal and temporary movements within and between countries. The adverse effects can be felt in both the origin and destination of the migrants. Any country revolves around its own population, so any fluctuation within must be considered carefully to find a balance in the economy, society and the environment. Forced migration often caused by religious or political reasons, and can remove resistance within a countries population. The reason for which they left can often escalate causing social unrest throughout the country. Political leaders forced to remove themselves, for example in Afghanistan can lead the country into desperate and urgent times, with political injustice and thus adverse effects. Emigrating from a country can have both beneficial and disadvantageous effects on the host country; on a scale of international migration many see emigration as a solution to high unemployment within the country. ...read more.

Middle

An example of this occurring was the mass movement of young unmarried Irishmen last century. The average age of marriage for women rose and resulted in an ever-increasing proportion of those who never married, which will have affected the country severely. The population would have shrunk with a smaller male population and less couples producing families to continue replacement, and so birth rate falls. The environment will also be affected. If the area was heavily agricultural, then the effect of people moving away will be such that their will be less man-power in the area to tend to the land. This means that the land would be left unused and produce in the area will decline. In areas where subsistence farming is common, this would spell disaster for local residents whose food supply would diminish. If land is left unused then it loses its fertility therefore it is unlikely that the land would be able to be used to the same extent later on. This puts a rapid stop to any chance of sustainable development in the short-term future, although in the long-term the availability of fertiliser or nutrients to add to the land may help, but these come at a price. ...read more.

Conclusion

In reality, this resource scarcity can lead to enhanced conflict and "the breakdown on cooperative action". Such stresses can have a negative effect of health and changing consumption patterns and can also lead to wars and violent conflict leading to increased migration and the creation of so called 'environmental refugees'. The social impact of migrants is probably the most contentious and important. International migration can lead to racial tension. Despite the enrichment of the country brought about by immigrants (artistic, theatrical, sporting, commercial, administrative and industrial, for example), resentment and even anger can be directed at such groups who see themselves as 'long-standing' citizens, resulting in racism. It is often directed at easily identifiable groups and this behaviour is likely to be brought about by the unfortunate desire for individuals to protect their territory. At best, the situation fades out as the groups are accepted into society. At worst, the racism holds that the immigrants, no matter how long-standing they may be, are a threat to the well being of the nation, and are encouraged by one means or another to leave. If the group is not socially resilient, then there should, theoretically, be no problem with racism on any level. ...read more.

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