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Current development issues in Brazil

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Introduction

TABLE OF CONTENTS CURRENT DEVELOPMENT ISSUES IN BRAZIL 2 ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS FACING BRAZIL 3 CURRENT CONTROL MEASURES 4 RESULTS OF MEASURES 5 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 8 ANNEXES 10 Global degradation and erosion has become a major concern during the last decades as human impacts on atmosphere, water and land has increased, leading to loss of species and environmental assets. It is true that it is a global phenomenon and that no country can fully protect itself from it, yet change must come from within. This paper aims to examine the major environmental problems currently facing Brazil, what actions the country is taking to prevent them and whether these actions are showing results. Sustainable tourism defined. The principle components of sustainable development emerged at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 1972. The themes of the conference were: 1 * the interdependence of human beings and the natural environment; * the links between economic and social development and environmental protection; and * the need for a global vision and common principles. In developing these themes, The World Commission on Environment and Development, (Brundtland Commission) 1987 defined sustainable development simply as - Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs2. Moreover, the Commission states that "sustainable development is a process of change in which exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development, and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations"3. Current development issues in Brazil Rapid economic progress, especially in developing countries, is often found at the top of government agendas, and a ruthless exploitation of natural resources and the subsequent degradation of the country's of those resources is often the outcome. Brazil is no different, as its rapid industrialization is unfortunately unmatched by its environmental protection policies, and this perhaps can be best seen in major ecological tragedies such as the deforestation of the Amazon and the desertification of the Northeast. ...read more.

Middle

Efforts to protect this rich biological heritage have been difficult. Brazil's federal enforced protected areas, such as national parks, reserves and research stations, cover only 1.85% of the Brazilian territory. There are other categories of protected areas where the direct exploitation of natural resources is authorized. Additionally, several states have established protected areas, which are also both strictly protected and open to direct exploitation. In the Legal Amazon, the federal enforced protected areas cover 3.2% of the territory.12 The legal laws discussed previously did not show any positive results yet because most of the legal regulations are not being respected or not applied in certain cases. The Brazilian Superior Court (which is in charge for crimes against environment) often declares the monetary fees that an organization must pay in order to continue with their business. Thus, most of the laws that exist in Brazil are not being very helpful or of any use to protect the environment. 13Yet, the positive results are expected from the Interamerican Development Bank project on sustainable tourism, as it involves external experts and it will be developed in two stages. 14 However, the development of eco locations will take some time and planning. Most of the sites are located in areas where bio-diversity is larger and often unique. Moreover, their land surface is large, and in most cases, they protect exceptionally beautiful landscapes and wildlife, of great value and interest for ecotourism. However, since they are widely spread in remote locations, nearly all are understaffed, and almost all require management plans and infrastructure to allow visitation.15 As a result, protection of parks and reserves throughout the Amazon region has become an important issue to promote ecotourism. Recommendations and conclusion The effective enforcement of a country's governance could be found within its judiciary framework. Brazil has a good legal foundation, however its implementation is sadly lacking. Regardless of mechanisms for better public administration, the government must crucially empower and fund the judiciary body to allow them to continuously prosecute polluters and criminals against the environment. ...read more.

Conclusion

e) Wild Fauna - it regulates the protection of wild species. This is to prevent the hunting, harassing and animal trade as well to protect the production of products derived from them. It prohibits the introduction of exotic species f) Forests - it defines the areas of preservations and determines the protection of native forests, demanding from the rural properties 20% of the arboreous area that cannot be marketed. g) Cultural Heritage - It prohibits the demolition, destruction or mutilation of listed buildings, including as the national heritage the assets that have archaeological and ethnographical value. h) National Policy for Environment - It creates the NatiSystem of Environment (SISNAMA). The pollutant must compensate or repair the damage caused to the environment. In addition, this law decides on licensing and evaluates the impact on the environment that must be presented before the economic activity that may pollute. i) Water Resources - It grants the responsibility to establish limits and environmental patterns to installing and licensing the industries, creating three kinds of zones: strictly industrial, predominant industrial and diversified use. j) Industrial Zoning in the Critical Polluted Areas - It establishes the limits and environmental patterns to installing and licensing the industries, creating three kinds of zones: strictly industrial, predominant industrial and diversify use. (Source: www.meioambiente.com.br) 1 www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/docs.htm 2 Rosen R. Green Business . http://www.ecobusiness.com.au/greenbiz.htm 3 http://www.ntcsd.org/sdexplain.html 4 Puppim de Oliveira, J.A. (2003). Governmental responses to tourism development: the Brazilian case studies. Tourism Management, 102 5 www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/brazil/ 6 http://www.ecotour.org/destinations/fazenda.htm 7 http://www.worldwatch.org/press/news/2001 8 http://www.brazil.org.uk/page.php 9 www.esteio.com.br/servicos/se_petrogasbol.htm 10 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/10209/fpapers/1001001/10010080.pdf 11 http://www.iadb.org/exr/doc98/pro/pbr0318.pdf 12 Abakerli, S. (2001). A critique of development and conservation policies in environmentally sensitive regions in Brazil. Geoforum, 32, 551-565. Retrieved May 10th, 2003 from Science Direct Database. 13 Puppim de Oliveira, J.A. (2002). Governmental Responses to Tourism Development: three Brazilian case studies. Tourism Management, 24, 97-110. Retrieved May 10th, 2003 from Science Direct Database. 14 Inter-American Development Bank (2002). Tourism Development Program in Northeastern Brazil, 2nd stage. 15 Puppim de Oliveira, J.A. (2002). Implementing Environmental Policies in Developing Countries Through Decentralisation: The Case of Protected Areas in Bahia, Brazil.World Development, 30, 1713-1736. 2 ...read more.

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