• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the characteristics of chalk and the land forms typical of chalk areas

Extracts from this document...


Describe the characteristics of chalk and the landforms typical of chalk areas Chalk is a soft white or whitish form of limestone, composed of the remains of small marine organisms. It formed after the shells and skeletons of these organisms were deposited in a thick layer on the sea bottom. Chemically, chalk is almost pure calcium carbonate with traces of other minerals. It ranges in hardness and texture from very soft porous varieties to harder close-grained types. ...read more.


This is the reason why distinctive rolling hills and vales are common in chalk scenery areas. Chalk scenery is also closely associated with the development of escarpments or cuestas which have steep scarp slopes and gentle dip slopes. However these features are more a product of erosion than of weathering. As with all limestone scenery, there is little surface drainage on chalk. Dry valleys are common features, and the size of these suggests different climatic conditions in earlier times. ...read more.


* The freezing of water in rock pores during glacial periods caused the chalk to become impermeable and allowed surface drainage to develop. Later, as temperatures rose and ice melted, the chalk once again became permeable causing the surface streams to disappear, leaving dry valleys behind. * The streams and their valleys developed on an overlying layer of impermeable rock. This layer was removed by a combination of weathering and erosion, resulting in the valleys being gradually superimposed on the underlying permeable chalk. * Surface drainage developed during periods of significantly higher rainfall than at present. When the rainfall decreased the water-table dropped, leaving behind dry valleys. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Rocks & Weathering section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Rocks & Weathering essays

  1. Erosional Landforms on the Dorset Coastline

    Through these arches and a gap where one has collapsed the sea enters to erode the softer parts of the limestone and shales.

  2. Free essay

    Outline the major landforms associated with Periglacial landscapes and discuss their formation.

    These are areas of rock and soil that are constantly active moving and changing shape on the slopes of the Periglacial environment. Another process affecting the topography of the land was that of nivation. Nivation is a process that sees the snowfall venture into the warmer climate.

  1. Determining the paleoenviroment and tectonic history of a small area (Cocklawburn Beach)

    I have used this photo to show bed 21-23 as it is clearer Bed 22: This coal layer has formed very close to another coal layer, which shows that the area stayed as a swampy land for a long time.

  2. I am trying to find out how footpath erosion on Pen Y Fan which ...

    Also I would have made another test on both Pen Y Fan and Cock marsh to compare the differences about a week later. This would show which footpath is eroding quicker. Overall I would have more photos that I took on the fieldwork trip, but my camera broke during the study, luckily I still have some photos.

  1. Compare and Contrast the Weathering Found in an Area of Limestone Country with that ...

    Steps 1 and 2 show that where the joints are closest together, more erosion occurs, and where the joints are widely spaced, comparatively little erosion occurs. The regolith surrounding the tor is made up of soil and loose pieces of rock.

  2. In this Essay I will inform you of the social, economic and environmental advantages/ ...

    employment to millions of people to come and work at the quarry for a living. Because the limestone is so widely used( for windows, farming, glass cutlery, steel production, building foundations, etc...) hundreds of other smaller businesses which specialise in these particular areas can develop, and make full use of

  1. Construct two Graphic Log Sections, one on the eastern exposure (ST 3375 6645) and ...

    5 Tuff, buff in colour. Cross bedding Northeast from present day and graded bedding. Cross bedding produced by wind or water current action moving sediment into a series of angled layers. Graded bedding produced when the energy of a current decreases allowing sediment grains to be deposited, with the largest at the bottom and the finest at the top.

  2. To What Extent Does Limestone Give Rise To Distinctive Land Forms.

    Massive Limestone from the Carboniferous Period (Of, belonging to, or denoting a geologic division of the Paleozoic Era following the Devonian and preceding the Permian, including the Mississippian Period and the Pennsylvanian Period and characterized, especially in the Pennsylvanian, by swamp formation and deposition of plant remains later hardened into coal.)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work