• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the range of physical phenomena that are associated with volcanic hazards. What techniques may be used to mitigate against volcanic disasters?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Describe the range of physical phenomena that are associated with volcanic hazards. What techniques may be used to mitigate against volcanic disasters? Volcanic eruptions bring with them a large range of hazards. This report will describe the different range of hazards associated with volcanic activity and discus possible ways that hazards can be avoided. A volcanic eruption can, force people to leave their homes, damage sources of water, destroy homes and farms, restrict travel and kill. Pyroclastic flow is a flow of volcanic rock, and the most devastating effect of an explosive eruption. A pyroclastic eruption is one in which the great majority of activity involves fountaining or explosions. Nothing from a volcano is as blistering hot and moves with as much power and speed as a pyroclastic flow. A pyroclastic flow starts with rocks and gasses being shot up to 20 miles high into a mushroom shaped cloud. Later the column collapses and rocks and hot ash avalanche down the mountain. ...read more.

Middle

Because they carry so much sediment and debris they leave thick deposits of mud, sand, boulders, and other debris behind, often many meters thick. A volcanic eruption can effect the atmosphere for years if it is powerful enough. Sulphur gasses erupted into the stratosphere chemically change into sulphuric acid droplets too small to see with the naked eye. "[Sulpheric acid is] Formed in the upper atmosphere when the sulphurus gasses emited by a volcano are converted by a chemical process in the upper atmosphere to sulphuric acid which then condenses into a fine mist" (SITE). Following the erruptio of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 their was a world wide cooling effect. Solar energy reaching the earths surface was reduced 5-10%. Spectacluar sunsets were witnessed world wide for years to some. This is because the particles that the volcano shoots into the stratosphere have a light scattering effect. This effect can vary depending on the size of the particles and how long they remain in the atmosphere. ...read more.

Conclusion

Electrical currents can be sent through the volcano to a receiving station. The station can tell how long it took the electrical current to reach the station and what electrical resistance it encountered. Soundings similar to this have been used on mount Vesuvious have revealed that there is a chamber of magma 5 miles below the crater, and that a large amount of rock debris is blocking the funnel (SITE). This research has helped those monitoring the volcanoe to know that the next eruption of Vesuvious will be explosive. The blockage on the funnel means that the volcano is collecting gasses and pressure so when it does explode it will be catastrophic. Education is a key to surviving a volcanic eruption. People need to be aware that they are living in a volcano danger area and what they should do if an eruption should occur. In the surrounding areas of Vesuvious aproxametly 750,000 people are currently living on the remains of dry lava from the eruption in 1944. when the volcano erupts again, the chances of a high death tole are high. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The number of fatalities that result from volcanic and seismic natural hazards is related ...

    4 star(s)

    Sichuan has a population of 80,418,200 and a population density of 180 /km2. Sichuan is a largely rural area, but has 5 main cities. This earthquake resulted in a death toll of 70000 by June 2008. The shaking of the ground in the area around the epicentre was intense and resulted in 1.5km of surface faulting near Quingchuan.

  2. With reference to a range of hazards, assess the success of prediction techniques in ...

    Now scientists hope to take the next step: predict how a storm's impact will affect rivers and streams prone to flooding. Satellites and weather balloons are also forms of hurricane prediction. In general computer simulation is quite affective in reducing impacts on humans however, prediction is still not 100% effective

  1. With Relation to different natural disasters, discuss their impacts and how they may vary ...

    collapsed while their inhabitants slept, many people were crushed to death. This was not helped also by the fact that the area in which the earthquake occurred, the Maharashtra had recently undergone significant population growth, and so many people where living in houses they had constructed themselves out of scrap material, unsupervised and without permission of the authorities.

  2. What are the variations in the effects and responses to volcanic activity between LEDCs ...

    The blast, filled with superheated gas, pulverized rock and ash, swept across the landscape, snapping off trees and levelling the forest within a 230 square mile area in a matter of minutes. Following the lateral blast, a vertical ash column formed and rose 17 miles into the sky.

  1. "What are hazardous Environments and how can hazards be classified?"

    One of the products caused by these tremors along the Earth's crust are Tsunamis (a.k.a tidal waves). Earthquakes that happen below or on the ocean floor causes disturbances and.

  2. Compare and contrast the hazards associated with volcanoes and mass movement.

    get up to high speeds and wipe out everything in there path. Pyroclastic flows are usually only linked with explosive volcanoes because of the large quantities of gas and ash. Volcanoes they are usually created when the extreme heat of the erupting volcano melts a glacier can also create lahars.

  1. Natural disasters in Japan

    Japan's economy, the world's second largest, will slow down to 2.3-percent growth in 2005, underperforming the US economy seen growing at 3.5 percent, the Washington-based group said. It had forecast 2.4-percent growth for Japan in August. Global growth from mid-2003 to the first quarter of 2004 was very fast but

  2. The World Distribution of Population is as important as the world distribution of areas ...

    lowering global temperatures by around 2 degrees on average in 1980 and grounding international air traffic, the argument for sparse populations not needing population distribution as a dominant strategy in prediction hazards can be proved. This is because the hazards were mainly environmental rather than deaths as in sparse population

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work