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Discover whether there is a hierarchy in Leicestershire.

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Introduction

Introduction My investigation consists of surveying populations and comparing them to the numbers of services in different places of Leicestershire. The object of this is to discover whether there is a hierarchy in Leicestershire. A hierarchy is the term used for the order of importance of any subject. In my investigations it specifically refers to the arrangement of settlements within a country in 'an order of importance- usually from many small villages and hamlets at the base of the hierarchy, to on major city, usually the capital, at the top. Three different methods to determine this order of importance have been based on: 1) The area and population of the settlement. 2) The range and number of functions and/or services within reach settlement. 3) The relative sphere of influence of each settlement. To describe the settlement we can use a can use a table and diagram to show what a settlement should contain in terms of services and what rank order a place is in the way of its population size. Hierarchy of settlements according to population size However this is only the statement of a geographer named Mr.Christaller, therefore he has based his hierarchy on what he has found throughout the places he has visited on average. Therefore I will base my theories on what I should find about Leicestershire on this, however only when I have completed my survey can I produce my own hierarchy. So when I have produced my own hierarchy I will see whether Mr.Christaller's hierarchy matches mine. On the other hand I cannot produce an accurate table because nobody can strictly define what a city, town, village, or hamlet is; but we can define a city, and it's only if there is a cathedral. ...read more.

Middle

The aim of this is to back up my previous answer by finding the gradient of the line of best fit. However it will not only do this but it will show the hierarchy by looking if there are defined clusters upon the line, at the top of the line of best fit will be the city/capital and at the bottom the village/hamlet. Also this will show whether there are any anomalous results, whereby they are not wrong results but do not fit the trend and I will try to explain the reasons for these. To find the line of best fit I will use a proven method: The outcome of this is to find the line of best fit for my logarithmic graph, however I will also find out the equation for the graph that is in the form of y = mx + c. For all of the values that I get I will round them to 2 decimal places. Pop (x) No of services (y) X = log�x Y = log�y X � Y X� 128975 1791 5.11 3.25 16.62 26.12 From this table I will find 'm' out of the formula y = mx + c ? = the sum of n = number of surveyed settlements m = (n?XY - ?X?Y) � [n?X� - (?X)�] = (33 � 16.62 - 128975 � 1791) � [ 33 � 26.12 - ( 26.12)] m = (548.46 - 230994225) � (861.96 - 26.12) m = -230993676.5 � 835.84 m = -276361.12 now I have found 'm' I need to find the intercept of the y axis 'c' by using the formula: c = Y - mX c = (3.25�33) ...read more.

Conclusion

This is a high figure and show that there is a strong correlation between the population size and the number of services in the area. It can be proved when we look at figures such as in Leicester where the population is 279800 and the number of services in this area is 927, and then if we look at Swithland where the population is 229 and there is 3 services in this area. From this it shows that there is a clear difference between the numbers of services and there population. But it is also obvious that it looks like there could be a correlation because as the population increased then so did the number of services. This is what I concluded from the spearman rank, that there is a strong, positive correlation between the population size and the number of services. However the objective of this was to find whether there is a correlation and I found when I found that there is, it only tells me if there is a correlation and not whether there is a hierarchy in Leicestershire which is the overall objective of the investigation. Therefore to find this I used a logarithmic graph which is a line graph which was a graph of population plotted against number of services. In this I found the exact formula for the line of best fit by using the equation y = mx + c. upon this line I found clusters which shown what levels certain areas were at on the hierarchy. However I found that two of the areas did not specifically fit on ring of clusters or the line of best fit. ...read more.

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