• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discus to the extent to which you believe Carlisle floods 2005 were the result of intense rainfall rather than the physical characteristics of the drainage basin

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Discus to the extent to which you believe Carlisle floods 2005 were the result of intense rainfall rather than the physical characteristics of the drainage basin January 2005 was a major even for Carlisle, as there was a major event. The rainfall was immensely high from the 6th to the 8th of January, during which two months of rainfall, although the previous days had high rainfall. During the flood, the rivers such as Eden, Kent and Derwent were the highest on record. The flood peaked in the upper parts of the Eden and Derwent catchments in the early hours of January 8th. In Carlisle, the River Eden peaked at an estimated 1520 m3/s at the Sheepmount Gauging Station at 140hrs on the 8th of January. ...read more.

Middle

Another factor that could have affected the floorings, were the physical features of the drainage basin. As the River Eden is situated in the midst of valley's, in the highlands in the north of England, there were many areas with steep slopes, which characterised the drainage basin, but there were lower gradients around Carlisle, meaning that the River Eden could have already been prone to its banks bursting, without the heavy rainfall. There was also alot of impermeable rocks on the highland, and near the Vale of Eden there was sandstone, with a fair amount of limestone, meaning that the water would of not been able to infiltrate or percolate through, which would lead to surface runoff and overland flow. ...read more.

Conclusion

The rain led to the overflow of the river, which caused surface runoff. We know this from the hydrological graph which showed the peak rainfall being 50mm, and the peak discharge being 55 mm. The graph also shows how the rainfall from the previous days affected the capacity of the soil, making saturated, meaning not a lot of water could have been percolated through the soil. There is a steep gradient in the rising limb, to show how quickly the rain was walling, and a steep falling limb, showing the rate of velocity of the water droplets flow, which is also descending very steeply. Although we can deduce from the evidence that the rainfall was the main cause the human and physical factors, also had parts in the major flooding of Carlisle in 2005, and it could not all be blamed on the rainfall. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Good use of a lot of appropriate terminology. Quite well structured essay, though the content within this needs attention. There is a lack of understanding of the exact human and physical factors involved. Some are mentioned and the details of how they relate to this specific location are given. However, actually comparing and contrasting their relative importance is needed with more detail and clarity to fully address the title. The vague conclusion is evidence of this.

Marked by teacher Katie Price 05/04/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Examine the factors influencing the movement of glaciers.

    4 star(s)

    The thickness of the ice influences this mechanism as the thicker the ice is, the lower the temperature at which it will melt and the higher the chance that some water will be available at the glacier base to enhance movement.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Analyse How the Inputs and Outputs from a River Basin Can Vary Over Time

    3 star(s)

    Cold temperatures in winter may increase the levels of surface runoff and total discharge as the ground may become frozen and restrict the frequency of infiltration into underwater stores, but also may decrease the amount of melting in glacial areas due to the decrease in temperature.

  1. Hydrology and Fluvial geomorphology. (Q&A)

    It is calculated by multiplying the cross-sectional area by the mean velocity (speed). A river's regime is based on average monthly discharge figures. These are collected over at least 20 years to try to eliminate minor year-to-year variations. There are several factors which will affect the river's regime, including rainfall, temperature, human use of the land and the landscape.

  2. Explain how human activity can modify the hydrological cycle.

    A lot of water reaches the river in a short time so the rising limb is steep, and the lag time is shorter so peak discharge is therefore higher, see Figure 2 Glaciers and ice caps melting may be due to global warming which is an indirect affect on the hydrological cycle by humans.

  1. Case Study: The Mississippi River Flood of 1993

    The Lower Mississippi runs downstream from Thebes to the Gulf of Mexico. Flooding was confined to the Upper Mississippi because the river channel widens considerably south of Thebes, and the Lower Mississippi received lower than average inflow from tributaries.

  2. The Amazon River: Case Study

    To drain the vast mass of water, the Amazon has carved a deep bed in the plain through which it flows. In one sector near ´┐Żbidos, Brazil, the bed is more than 91 m below the average surface level of its water.

  1. A flood hydrograph

    Being impermeable rock, the water cannot infiltrate through this and become ground water, instead it flows over the ground to the river. Urban development and agricultural practices contribute to overland flow. The descending limb is the last part of the line on a hydrograph, showing the discharge dropping with time after the peak discharge.

  2. The Causes Of Rainfall

    Advection cooling results when warm moist air that moves over cooler land surfaces causing fogs to form as the warm air drifts over the cooler air below. Other types of condensation come in the form of orographic and frontal uplift.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work