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Discuss the solutions implemented by governments of developing nations to deal with the issues of rapid urbanisation

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Introduction

Discuss the solutions implemented by governments of developing nations to deal with the issues of rapid urbanisation. How successful have these solutions been? [40 marks] In many developing countries such as India and Brazil today, there has been a huge increase in the amount of urbanisation taking place. Urbanisation is when a higher proportion of the population in a country are living in urban areas rather than rural areas. This is mainly caused by the process of industrialisation, where new industries are being created and the country is going through economic growth. Industrialisation leads to many new job openings being created, and many people move to urban areas in order to fill these jobs. Rapid urbanisation, however, brings with it many problems such as an increased demand for housing, an increase in pollution & crime and transport issues and this is due to the incredibly quick rate at which it happens, giving the country less time to adapt to these changes. In order to combat these issues, the governments for these countries have had to come up with many different solutions, which will be outlined below. Some of these solutions are more effective than others. ...read more.

Middle

This can be shown by the number of vehicles registered in Bangkok between 1980 and 1990. In 1980, there were 578,767 registered vehicles and this rapidly increased to 2,336,531 registered vehicles in 1990. This causes great costs in the sense of petrol consumption and health problems related to the respiratory system and mental stress. It is estimated that there are 2.6 million vehicles that travel in and out of Bangkok every day. This causes the average time to travel from the outskirts to the inner city to increase from 48 minutes to 91 minutes. Bangkok?s council have tried to resolve this issue by creating the Skytrain, a transit system which was put in place as a long term solution to help with the ever increasing road congestion. A two month pilot scheme was also launched, which involved an 800m part of the road being closed every Sunday for the duration of those two months. This action led to thousands of rural Thais flocking to the region to see the area, which had previously been flooded with traffic. This has encouraged the authorities to close off four more major roads to allow tourism to flourish. ...read more.

Conclusion

The investments played a vital role in increasing the incomes of the urban poor and improving access to basic health services, and in some areas, permanent police posts were set up. I believe that these schemes were successful, as the town is now a much nicer place to live and the standard of living has improved greatly compared to how it was before the scheme was implemented. To conclude, each of these solutions mentioned above have their strengths and weaknesses, and some worked better than others. For example, the solutions implemented in Rio de Janeiro have had a much higher success rate, in other countries as well, than the methods used in Bangkok when combating traffic congestion. In my opinion, the self-help schemes in Rio were the most effective techniques for solving the problems faced, and this is because they encouraged people to take an active stance and to improve their own lives, encouraging them to do so in the future. The least successful methods in my opinion were the ones implemented in Bangkok in regards to the traffic, as these plans led to many residents taking a critical view of the changes. The methods used did not help solve the problem but instead led to more plans having to be made. ...read more.

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