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Does The Theory "Stacks Are Smaller Further From The Cliff Face" Prove Correct At Marloes Sands?

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Introduction

Does The Theory "Stacks Are Smaller Further From The Cliff Face" Prove Correct At Marloes Sands? Name: Becky Lowe Centre Number: Candidate Number: Contents Introduction: 3 Background Theory: 3-5 Study Site: 5-8 Expectations: 8-9 Methodology: 9-11 Data Presentation: Data Analysis: Conclusion: Evaluation: Bibliography: Introduction: In this report I will study the relationship between the height of stacks and their relative distance from the cliff face at the back of the beach. Stacks are formed through erosional processes on the coast. The rock is worn away on all sides of a tower of rock leaving it standing free, apart from the shore. The theory says that the further away from the cliff face a stack is, the shorter it should be in height. The purpose of this report is to investigate the accuracy of this theory at Marloes Sands in south west Wales. I plan to either prove or disprove this theory. Background Theory: The theory that I am testing is the model of coastal erosion. This shows a pattern in the way that a coast will be eroded, and the features which will be produced because of it. There are four main processes of coastal erosion. These are corrosion, attrition, hydraulic power and corrasion. Corrosion is the chemical breakdown of rocks such as limestone. Fig.1. Attrition is the collision of particles transported by waves. This breaks them down into smaller, smoother particles (as shown in figure 1). Fig.2. Hydraulic power is the sheer force of the water trapping air in cavities in the rocks. The air gets trapped between the rock and the water under immense pressure, the pressure stresses and weakens the rock, the air sometimes escapes with an explosion breaking off pieces of rock (as shown in figure 2). Corrasion is the waves throwing sand and pebbles against the rock face, this wears them away like sandpaper. These forms of erosion can significantly change the shape of a coastline over the years. ...read more.

Middle

When a stack is found, the distance across the beach from the last stack will be measured using pacing and this will be recorded. This will then be easy to translate to a position on the map later on. Each stack will be given a number as it is sampled and this number will be written on the map next to the stack in question. Flow Diagram Of Our Process of Work Data Presentation and Analyses: Fig.20. Number Discontinuities Distance Location Height Hardness Meters Beds Average/m Paces Meters Paces Meters Meters From Start Angle Calc. Height Actual height Finger Nail Copper Coin Iron Nail Steel Blade 1 1.5 5 3.3 31 44 0 0 0 0 0 1.55 n y y y 2 2 9 4.5 31 44 1 1 1 1 0.1 1.65 y y y y 3 2.5 4 1.6 32 46 1.5 2 2 -2 -0.21 1.34 y y y y 4 2.5 4 1.6 15 21 50 71 71 18 1.95 3.5 n y n y 5 1.5 6 4 9 13 1 1 72 1 0.1 1.65 y y y y 6 2 5 2.5 10 14 0.5 1 73 2 0.21 1.76 n y y y 7 2 9 4.5 1 1 3 4 77 4 0.42 1.97 y y y y 8 2 4 2 20 29 0 0 77 2 0.21 1.76 y y y y 9 1.5 6 4 6.5 9 11 16 93 3 0.31 1.85 y y y y 10 1 5 5 13 19 4 6 99 2 0.21 1.76 n y y y 11 3.5 9 2.5 3 4 0 0 99 25 2.8 4.25 y y y y 12 1 7 7 12.5 18 3 4 103 -4 -0.42 1.13 y y y y 13 3.5 4 1.1 8 11 16 23 126 10 1.06 2.01 y y y y 14 6 9 1.5 4.5 6 2 3 129 32 3.75 5.3 n y y n 15 1.5 5 3.3 ...read more.

Conclusion

This graph also shows that the stacks are in two main areas at either end of the graph. These areas relate to the central group of stacks near to Matthews Slade and the next large group of stacks to the southeast (shown in figure 21). Five of the stacks on this graph are more than 3m high. Graph 2 (21-40m) shows fewer stacks than in the graph before as it is further from the cliff face. The stacks on this graph still fall into the two groups mentioned above but the groups are not obvious as the stacks are so much fewer and far stretched. They could just as easily be positioned all over the graph with no pattern but we know that they follow the pattern because we can relate it to the graph above. Three of the stacks on this graph are taller than 3m. Graph 3 (41-60m) shows about the same number of stacks at this distance as at the distance before. These are much more clumped together though; there is one major clump around 150m across from Matthews Slade and another just after 400m. These correlate with the groups shown in figure 21 again. There is only one stack taller than 3m on this graph. Graph 4 (61-80m) shows only four stacks. These are collected at the southeast end of the graph. These stacks are furthest out from the cliff and are collected in one area again supporting the theory on resisance and rock composition. This shows that there is probably a band of more resistant rock in this part of the coastline. There are no stacks taller than 3m on this graph. The specific notes taken on the number of stacks over 3m high from the four graphs show that the number of stacks over 3m high begin high closest to the cliff and then get lower as the graphs move further from the cliff. Becky Lowe Geography Coursework 11R Page 4 of 20 ...read more.

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