• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20

Does The Theory "Stacks Are Smaller Further From The Cliff Face" Prove Correct At Marloes Sands?

Extracts from this document...


Does The Theory "Stacks Are Smaller Further From The Cliff Face" Prove Correct At Marloes Sands? Name: Becky Lowe Centre Number: Candidate Number: Contents Introduction: 3 Background Theory: 3-5 Study Site: 5-8 Expectations: 8-9 Methodology: 9-11 Data Presentation: Data Analysis: Conclusion: Evaluation: Bibliography: Introduction: In this report I will study the relationship between the height of stacks and their relative distance from the cliff face at the back of the beach. Stacks are formed through erosional processes on the coast. The rock is worn away on all sides of a tower of rock leaving it standing free, apart from the shore. The theory says that the further away from the cliff face a stack is, the shorter it should be in height. The purpose of this report is to investigate the accuracy of this theory at Marloes Sands in south west Wales. I plan to either prove or disprove this theory. Background Theory: The theory that I am testing is the model of coastal erosion. This shows a pattern in the way that a coast will be eroded, and the features which will be produced because of it. There are four main processes of coastal erosion. These are corrosion, attrition, hydraulic power and corrasion. Corrosion is the chemical breakdown of rocks such as limestone. Fig.1. Attrition is the collision of particles transported by waves. This breaks them down into smaller, smoother particles (as shown in figure 1). Fig.2. Hydraulic power is the sheer force of the water trapping air in cavities in the rocks. The air gets trapped between the rock and the water under immense pressure, the pressure stresses and weakens the rock, the air sometimes escapes with an explosion breaking off pieces of rock (as shown in figure 2). Corrasion is the waves throwing sand and pebbles against the rock face, this wears them away like sandpaper. These forms of erosion can significantly change the shape of a coastline over the years. ...read more.


When a stack is found, the distance across the beach from the last stack will be measured using pacing and this will be recorded. This will then be easy to translate to a position on the map later on. Each stack will be given a number as it is sampled and this number will be written on the map next to the stack in question. Flow Diagram Of Our Process of Work Data Presentation and Analyses: Fig.20. Number Discontinuities Distance Location Height Hardness Meters Beds Average/m Paces Meters Paces Meters Meters From Start Angle Calc. Height Actual height Finger Nail Copper Coin Iron Nail Steel Blade 1 1.5 5 3.3 31 44 0 0 0 0 0 1.55 n y y y 2 2 9 4.5 31 44 1 1 1 1 0.1 1.65 y y y y 3 2.5 4 1.6 32 46 1.5 2 2 -2 -0.21 1.34 y y y y 4 2.5 4 1.6 15 21 50 71 71 18 1.95 3.5 n y n y 5 1.5 6 4 9 13 1 1 72 1 0.1 1.65 y y y y 6 2 5 2.5 10 14 0.5 1 73 2 0.21 1.76 n y y y 7 2 9 4.5 1 1 3 4 77 4 0.42 1.97 y y y y 8 2 4 2 20 29 0 0 77 2 0.21 1.76 y y y y 9 1.5 6 4 6.5 9 11 16 93 3 0.31 1.85 y y y y 10 1 5 5 13 19 4 6 99 2 0.21 1.76 n y y y 11 3.5 9 2.5 3 4 0 0 99 25 2.8 4.25 y y y y 12 1 7 7 12.5 18 3 4 103 -4 -0.42 1.13 y y y y 13 3.5 4 1.1 8 11 16 23 126 10 1.06 2.01 y y y y 14 6 9 1.5 4.5 6 2 3 129 32 3.75 5.3 n y y n 15 1.5 5 3.3 ...read more.


This graph also shows that the stacks are in two main areas at either end of the graph. These areas relate to the central group of stacks near to Matthews Slade and the next large group of stacks to the southeast (shown in figure 21). Five of the stacks on this graph are more than 3m high. Graph 2 (21-40m) shows fewer stacks than in the graph before as it is further from the cliff face. The stacks on this graph still fall into the two groups mentioned above but the groups are not obvious as the stacks are so much fewer and far stretched. They could just as easily be positioned all over the graph with no pattern but we know that they follow the pattern because we can relate it to the graph above. Three of the stacks on this graph are taller than 3m. Graph 3 (41-60m) shows about the same number of stacks at this distance as at the distance before. These are much more clumped together though; there is one major clump around 150m across from Matthews Slade and another just after 400m. These correlate with the groups shown in figure 21 again. There is only one stack taller than 3m on this graph. Graph 4 (61-80m) shows only four stacks. These are collected at the southeast end of the graph. These stacks are furthest out from the cliff and are collected in one area again supporting the theory on resisance and rock composition. This shows that there is probably a band of more resistant rock in this part of the coastline. There are no stacks taller than 3m on this graph. The specific notes taken on the number of stacks over 3m high from the four graphs show that the number of stacks over 3m high begin high closest to the cliff and then get lower as the graphs move further from the cliff. Becky Lowe Geography Coursework 11R Page 4 of 20 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Coastal Landforms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Coastal Landforms essays

  1. "An investigation into the methods of coastal management along Brighton's Coastline and the reasons ...

    the shoreline Figure 28: 10 pebbles showing the roundness and size which was found 35m away from the shoreline Beach Profile Beach Profile Recording Sheet Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Distance up beach (m) Angle (deg) Distance up beach (m)

  2. Coastal Processes

    The tasks were: measuring pebbles from our random measurements, taking a pebble from random result, measuring facets and using the Clinometer to work out the facets angle. To avoid any errors and to increase our accuracy in our work and results, we looked from a side on view of the

  1. An investigation into how beach material varies in shape and size up the beach.

    Transects A-B and E-F started off at 5m with low figures for thickness, which is expected as they become thoroughly worn due to erosion by the sea. Both transects then have a greater thickness (1.4cm at 5m to 1.9cm at 20m for transect A-B and 1.2cm at 5m to 2.2cm at 20m), further up the beach (which was expected.)

  2. North Stradbroke Island Report

    This exposed the sand accumulations that became islands like NSI. The sand from the beaches were blown by the wind and created the dunes with heavier minerals concentrated inland of the island. 6,500 years ago, where the sea-level was elevated, a coastal platform was eroded around the island (CRL).

  1. GCSE Georgraphy Coursework: Coastlines

    Advantages: > They protect the settlements and make house prices rise again > They stop more of the Norfolk coastline falling to the sea > They make people less worried as there are visual signs that something is being done.

  2. Investigate the effects of costal processes on Porlock Bay in Somerset and also to ...

    4.6 VR 6) 5.9 R 7) 4.8 R 8) 6.1 VR 9) 4.1 SR 10) 4.9 VR 11) 4.8 R 12) 4.6 VR 13) 5.4 VR 14) 5.6 VR 15) 5.1 R 16) 7.5 SR 17) 6.6 VR 18) 5.1 VR 19) 6.3 R 20) 6.4 R 21) 10.2 VR 22)

  1. Does the size of beach material on a beach become smaller and more rounded ...

    and hurl them at the base of a cliff. When waves hit the base of a cliff air is compressed into cracks. When the wave retreats the air rushes out of the gap. Often this causes cliff material to break away. This process is known as hydraulic action. Attrition is when waves cause rocks and pebbles to bump into each other and break up.

  2. "Describe and explain the differences in the coastline North and South of the Tower ...

    We took 10 measurements and then calculated the average. Average Wave Length This measurement could not be measured in the sea but a formula is used to calculate it. As we took our measurement in water under 2m and considered shallow we used the following calculation: Wave Length (m)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work