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Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts of Tourism: Antipodes

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Introduction

Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts of Tourism: Antipodes Table of Contents Introduction------------------------------------------------------ 3 Economic Impact------------------------------------------------ 3 Social Impact---------------------------------------------------- 4 Environmental Impact------------------------------------------ 6 Conclusion------------------------------------------------------- 7 Reference-------------------------------------------------------- 8 Appendices------------------------------------------------------- 9 Introduction This report will look at the Economic, Social and Environmental impacts of tourism in Antipodes (Australia & New Zealand) on both positive and negative views. The Antipodes has a rich relationship with the tourism industry, with people all over the world visit every year, tourism delivers significant benefits, also problems to Antipodes. Economic Positive Impact International tourist coming to the area will bring in much needed foreign exchange into the local economy. In Australia, 2001-2002 tourism generated 4.5 per cent of gross domestic product and 11.2 per cent of exports, was the largest export earner within the service sector, had total visitor consumption of $17 billion, and directly employed 549 000 persons. Tourism can be a significant, even essential, part of the local economy. As the environment is a basic component of the tourism industry's assets, tourism revenues are often used to measure the economic value of protected areas. For example, Dorrigo National Park in New South Wales, Australia, has been estimated to contribute 7% of gross regional output and 8.4% of regional employment. ...read more.

Middle

Benefits can include upgraded infrastructure, health and transport improvements, new sport and recreational facilities, restaurants, and public spaces as well as an influx of better-quality commodities and food. Tourism can boost the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions, which often contributes to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, the protection of local heritage, and a renaissance of indigenous cultures, cultural arts and crafts. Tourism also helps raise local awareness of the financial value of natural and cultural sites and can stimulate a feeling of pride in local and national heritage and interest in its conservation. More broadly, the involvement of local communities in tourism development and operation appears to be an important condition for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Negative Impact Tourism can turn local cultures into commodities when religious rituals, traditional ethnic rites and festivals are reduced and sanitized to conform to tourist expectations, resulting in what has been called "reconstructed ethnicity." Once a destination is sold as a tourism product, and the tourism demand for souvenirs, arts, entertainment and other commodities begins to exert influence, basic changes in human values may occur. ...read more.

Conclusion

Global tourism is closely linked to climate change. Tourism involves the movement of people from their homes to other destinations and accounts for about 50% of traffic movements; rapidly expanding air traffic contributes about 2.5% of the production of CO2. Tourism is thus a significant contributor to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. An ecosystem is a geographic area including all the living organisms (people, plants, animals, and microorganisms), their physical surroundings (such as soil, water, and air), and the natural cycles that sustain them. The ecosystems most threatened with degradation are ecologically fragile areas such as alpine regions, rain forests, wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs and sea grass beds. The threats to and pressures on these ecosystems are often severe because such places are very attractive to both tourists and developers. Conclusion To conclude, the economic, social and environmental has both positive and negative impact on tourism. However, we should look on both. Reference Websites: 1. http://www.deh.gov.au 2. http://www.tourism.sa.gov.au 3. http://www.southaustralia.com 4. http://www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/home.htm 5. http://www.qqtc.com.au 6. http://www.tourismcouncilwa.com.au Journal Articles: 1. Tourism Management September 1989 <Tourism: Australia's fastest growing industry> 2. Tourism Management January 1991 <Tourism, environment and Development> 3. Tourism Management June 1987 <Tourism models: the socio cultural aspects> 4. Tourism Management July 1987 <Economic aspects> 1 ...read more.

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