• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Effective Environmental Impact Management through Ecotourism

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Environmental Impact Management through Ecotourism Abstract The world has seen the growth of tourism increase dramatically in the past fifty years and with this growth comes a concern for the cultural and environmental impacts associated with it. Ecotourism is the new breed of tourism based around the concept of nature and cultural appreciation, espoused by many to bring significant economic benefits to the host countries as well as being a sustainable alternative to mass tourism. The aim of this paper is to review the literature that focuses on the environmental impacts of ecotourism. This will be achieved through the discussion of five key areas. First, the multitude of definitions surrounding ecotourism will be examined with a view to identifying the core concepts. Second, the key players involved in the ecotourism industry will be identified. Third, the positive and negative impacts associated with ecotourism will be discussed. Fourth, the contributing factors that determine the level of environmental impact. Fifth, the future of ecotourism and how it can be managed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future research. Introduction World tourism is growing in terms of number of travellers as well as in economic expansion (World Tourism Organisation (W.T.O), 1997) and as the worlds largest industry (Nelson, 1993) it earns approximately $US 2.5 trillion annually (Dearden, 1993). Tourism takes on many different guises and nature-tourism is one of these, which, in it's most sustainable form has been labelled ecotourism. Within the worldwide tourism industry ecotourism is one of the fastest growing sectors (Eagles, 1995) and according to a 2001 W.T.O and United Nations Environment Programme study ecotourism may represent between two and four percent of global tourism (W.T.O, 1997). ...read more.

Middle

research which takes a much more phenomenological approach and segments eco-tourists into 'shallow' and 'deep' groups. Shallow eco-tourists are of an anthropocentric frame of mind in that they view humans as separate from nature and that nature is an instrument that serves human ends. 'Deep' eco-tourists adopt a much more holistic view of the world and view humans to be intrinsically linked with the environment. Burton (1998) identifies these differing types as 'casual' and 'dedicated' eco-tourists with 'dedicated' ones having higher expectations in terms of the quality of the ecotourism experience. Eco-tourism as a product is delivered by the ecotour operators and companies (Thomlinson, 1996). They characteristically have the parent business located in the base country (predominantly western) who prepare nature tour packages and then co-ordinate with the other half of their business in the destination country (Higgins, 1996). The majority are small-scale operations (Blamey, 1995; McArthur, 1994). This enables the operators to practice environmentally responsible practices and to ensure high quality experiences for the tourists (Burton 1998; Thomlinson, 1996). In compliance with the definition of ecotourism ecotour operators ideally should act in an environmentally responsible manner yet many researchers suggest that they are masquerading as ecotour companies and use the term ecotourism as a marketing tool (Nianyong, 2001; Thomlinson, 1996; Beaumont, 2001; Burton, 1998). With respect to government agencies involvement and attitudes towards ecotourism the content analysis study conducted by Edwards et al. (1998) provides the most comprehensive insight into their agenda's. As well as this empirical study the literature identifies them as playing an important role in the management of the ecotourism industry with them being the creators of the policies which control the exploitation of natural areas (Nianyong, 2001; Chin et al., 2000; Beaumont, 2001; Burton, 1998). ...read more.

Conclusion

Nianyong (2001) also illustrates that governments should be instrumental in helping to develop environmentally responsible policies within their country as well as providing funds for research. Yet in the case of Nianyongs' research which was a survey conducted in China, he points out that a lot of ecotourism destinations are in the third world, this is can be seen in the way that most of the case studies on ecotourism are based in the third world. These host countries can't afford to provide funds for appropriate ecotourism development, a point corroborated by Chin et al. (2000) whose study was based in Malaysia. Yet paradoxically authorities were responsible for increasing the number of eco-tourists to the Bako national park in 1988 through tourism promotion. Chin et al. (2000) suggests that this was driven by economic interests. The next area of discussion focuses on how eco-tour operators affect the level of environmental impact that ecotourism destinations experience. As previously mentioned it is suggested that eco-tour operators are simply exploiting the concept of ecotourism by using it as a marketing tool. Burton (1998) cites a number of researchers who suggest that surveys indicate that a large number of eco-tour operators cannot be considered to act in an environmentally responsible manner (Botrill and Pearce, 1995; Weiler, 1992; Holden & Kealy, 1996; Jones, 1993). This obviously has serious implications for the level of environmental impact and in Belize supposedly ecotourism companies have destroyed large swaths of mangrove swamps in order to develop luxury bungalows (Thomlinson, 1996). Also although most eco-tour operators are small businesses there are so many of them they can negatively impact the environment through a cumulative effect (Thomlinson, 1996; Beaumont, 2001). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating Travel & Tourism

    5 star(s)

    In the UK it has partnerships with other organizations such as the British Council. The National Tourist Boards (NTB's) These were established in 1969 when the Development of Tourism Act was passed. The English Tourism Council (ETC) replaced the English Tourism Board in 1999 These are responsible for promoting domestic tourism in their own countries.

  2. International Ecotourism Management: Using Australia and Africa as Case Studies.

    Higher levels of environmental consciousness in western society are a primary factor in the higher demand for nature-based tourism. At the same time, the scarcity of pristine environments in densely populated areas, means that travel is necessary to reach high quality sites.

  1. Different types of travel destination. Study of Cardiff and Barcelona as travel destinations.

    These are destinations such as Venice and Barcelona. Tourist towns are predominantly used for leisure tourism; they are generally short break destinations or day visits when on a longer holiday. They contain a range of attractions for visitors to do including museums and theme parks, the majority of attractions are cultural like the tower f London or they are purpose built like Oakwood near Carmarthen.

  2. This piece of coursework is based on the tourism industry in less economically developed ...

    Sustainable tourism is that which can continue without damaging the environment as well as integrating the local community and involving them in the planning and carrying out tourist development. The existing level of tourism is really high in Kenya. It has increased vastly increased in the past couple of years.

  1. The Board of directors of Barclays have asked me to submit a formal business ...

    services provided by Barclays, "Success through Inclusion" is a programme which helps Barclays in finding ways to provide wider services to disabled customers. Barclays launched "Making our Service Available" broachers for disabled customers, which are published in Braille, large and standard print and audiotapes.

  2. Investigating Travel and Tourism

    2) Clothes, food and drink which are basic essentials people need. 3) Rent and mortgage. 4) Furnishings. 5) Communication such as phones or letters. 6) Transport. * Minus all these factors from the income, what money is left over is disposable income.

  1. What is the impact of Tourism and Recreation on Epping Forest?

    service which runs from a variety of train stations in London; the stops to look out for are either West Ruslip or Ealing Broadway, which can easily guide anyone forward to Epping, to the local train station; Loughton station. History Epping Forest itself is said to have formed in approximately

  2. Development of the leisure and recreation industry

    For them demography will only effect them in the long run or if the young population begin to move out of the locality. Pool land club relies desperately on the local demography as its players are generally young and as pool is a very common game its use is available

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work