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EOGRAPHY GCSE CASE STUDIES AND NOTESUse geographical terms in your answers wherever possible

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Introduction

EOGRAPHY GCSE CASE STUDIES AND NOTES Use geographical terms in your answers wherever possible Understand meaning of terms used in questions:- explain = give reasons for describe = say what it shows distribution = how things are arranged, where they can be found relief = shape of the land layout = where things are pattern/trend = things that are the same site = actual position situation = its surroundings rural/urban = country/town input/output housing tenure/density = ownership/how many in a given area ecosystem = area sharing common characteristics Theme 1 - Physical systems & Environments 1a Geomorphic Processes and Landforms Erosion Transportation Deposition rivers hydraulic action attrition corrosion corrasion/abrasion suspension solution saltation traction 95% of river's energy used in transportation oxbow lakes levees delta braiding coasts as above weakness in rock enlarges = cave = arch = stack = stump long shore drift (waves in on diagonal due to wind, out at right angles due to gravity) suspension solution saltation traction bars tombolos spits ice plucking abrasion ribbon lake carries pushes material at edge of glacier kame eskers outwash plains terminal moraines drumlins Water Cycle precipitation - water falling as rain, hail, sleet, snow condensation - water change vapour - liquid evaporation - water change liquid - vapour infiltration - water seeping into ground/soil interception - trees and plants stop rain from reaching the ground Rivers A river is a channel of water flowing down hill under the influence of gravity. It starts in the mountains (source) and meanders towards the sea (mouth) River Erosion * Energy - the capacity of a river to erode and transport sediments of mud, sand and gravel * Erosion - break down, transportation and deposition of rock * Transport - carrying and moving sediments downstream * Load - sediments and material transported by a river * Excess energy - spare energy not needed to transport river's load * Deposition - dropping any material the river can no longer transport * Traction - rolling stones along river bed (needs most energy) ...read more.

Middle

housing 2. number of jobs 3. environment After development * shopping - large superstores near Canary Wharf, luxury complex at Tobacco Wharf - prices increased = unsuitable for locals * Environment - 17 conservation areas, large national indoor sports complex * industry - new offices and hi-tech firms attracted by low rates eg newspapers moved from Fleet Street. 10,000 new jobs created before 1992 recession - suitable for highly skilled newcomers, not locals * housing - 20,000 new houses, warehouse conversions, lower rate housing built + modern amenities * transport - city airport, London Docklands Light Railway, improved roads and rail links eg Jubilee Line * local services neglected, eg hospitals, care of elderly Scheme was successful economically and environmentally but unsuccessful socially because local people were forced out. Case Study The Metro Centre, Gateshead, NE England * 300 shops (lots of childrens shops) * air conditioned * wide variety of places to eat (over 40) * 10 screen cinemas * 150 room hotel * indoor fun fair * seats for relaxing * free car parking 10,000 cars * land was cheap to buy * possibility to expand * good far out-of-town location * 1.3 million people live within 30 minutes' drive * adjacent to main railway line, own station * easy access from motorways * in an enterprise zone. Case Study - B.A.R.T. (Bay Area Rapid Transit - San Francisco USA) * opened 1974 * Electric + pollution free * fast conveyance of 350,000 people a day in early 1990's * trains travel up to 120 km per hour. (travel time peak periods over bay between Oakland and San Francisco = 9 minutes (40 mins by road) * trains run every 1.5 minutes peak times, and every 20 minutes at night * modern carriages are noiseless, air conditioned and carpeted * whole system fully automatic and computerised * long platforms = rapid alighting and boarding by passengers * lower fares than by bus to attract passengers * cars left at suburban stations = ...read more.

Conclusion

traditional society - subsistence farming eg Brazilian rainforest 1. pre-conditions for take-off - overseas aid, export of raw materials, beginning of manufacturing eg Kenya, Bangladesh 1. take-off - increase in manufacturing, technology, one "core" region eg India 1. drive to maturity - rapid urbanisation, technology, good transport, decline in primary jobs eg Brazil 1. age of high mass consumption - service industry expansion, decline in manufacturing eg Japan, USA, UK, France Case Study - Trade - India Munjurpet * rural village S. India * co-operatives set up * employment for women = skills, opportunity for travel, independence, wages * raising education standards - women less interested in early marriage * link with UK - "TR/AID CRAFT" (trade + aid). Aims = increase sales in UK, expand jobs in India Indians did not bring problems on themselves - droughts, floods, earthquakes. Trying to be self-sufficient Madras * attractions of city life * garment factories. Sweat shops - hot, low pay, long hours, no unions * pay �10-�40 per month, 35 workers produce 2,500 items per day, exported to Europe + USA K.V.Kuppan * rural area near Munjurpet * tailoring unit co-operative * shop in Bristol, responsible for design * jobs in tailoring, weaving in India. wages low but reliable = money direct to village = supports local economy BUT quotas imposed on goods from less developed world (not from Europe or USA) Conflicting Demands for Land * mining & quarrying - clay/bricks (Stewartby), landfill sites (leachate, methane) * tourism - Turkey, areas of outstanding natural beauty (National Parks) * agriculture - Cheshire Plain, Denmark * urbanisation (housing & industry) - Developed World (Randstad Holland, Milton Keynes) + Developing World (Cairo, Brasilia) * storage (water) - Volta Dam * transport - Bedford By-Pass, BART, Bullet Train, M25/Channel Train * industrialisation - farming, manufacturing (car - Detroit, Vauxhall), tertiary (shopping in Milton Keynes + Metro Centre), quaternary (hi-tech). ...read more.

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