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Erosion at Walton on the Naze

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

. CHAPTER1 As part of my GCSE coursework, my geography class and I had to visit Walton-On-The-Naze. We visited Walton on the 3rd of November 2000. I have to answer the question, 'Why is the rate of erosion so rapid at Walton-On-The-Naze?' I will try to answer this by studying a variety of coastal processes that are operating at Walton, e.g. the different types of sea defences, and use the theory behind it. I will use for example, the technical terms in my explanations with diagrams where possible. Walton is very close to the North Sea, and this is only one reason why erosion is so rapid. The cliffs have eroded by 4m since last year, and the largest amount it has eroded was 5.9 m in 1998 to 1999. The rapid rate of erosion is due to the many processes on its coast, effect of raw materials, wave size and fetch, depth and width of beach, longshore drift, where waves transport the material along the beach. Including mass movement e.g. small avalanches, rotational slips, weathering, and formation of wave cut platforms. My project will also involve lots of results from the tests we took, and evidence supporting it. In this first chapter, I will introduce Questions and Hypotheses which I will present as a list, the location of Walton, and then my aims and objectives. In most sections I will talk about the influencing factors, the technique, and the limitations and results. Water particles within a wave move in a circular motion and each particle moves up and down. The only thing that moves horizontally towards the seacoast is the shape of the wave, and its energy but when a wave reaches shallow water friction from the seabed slows down its velocity and it turns into an elliptical motion. The top of the wave gets higher until it breaks. Then the swash moves forward, transferring the energy up the beach and the backwash do the opposite. Formation of a wave. Fig 1. ...read more.

Middle

To find the wave height I had to do: the wave crest - the wave trough. To measure the wave frequency we had to take a point, a rock for example, and counted for a period of 1 minute, how many waves hit that point in the specified time. We counted for a minute because we thought that would be a fair enough period to record our results. Below is a diagram of how we did this. Fig 22. To find the water depth we had to take our results about the wave crest and trough, and find halfway between them. There were two ways of finding the wavelength, and these were Wave height = crest-trough Water depth (1/2 way crest + trough) = trough 1/2 wave height Wave length = 3.1 x 60 x water depth Wave frequency. Wave type Constructive - less than 10 per minute, builds beaches Destructive - more than 13 per minute- erodes beaches Wave energy (strength of wave) = 740 x H� x L To record the results for the fetch, we had to watch the direction that the waves came from; I could also use a compass for the The influencing factors were the wind speed and the wind direction, whilst the limitations were the fetch may change course due to the rocks in the way and the power and speed of the wind, plus the prevailing winds. human reaction speed. I think that other limitations could be the different seasons had we visited in the spring etc. The limitations were that whilst recording there was lots of waves coming in and we couldn't get enough time to measure the troughs etc. DATA PRESENTATION Below is a diagram showing each part of the wave and its measurements etc. Fig 23. Now is a table of all our results for each method. Fig 24 1 2 3 4 5 Wave crest (cm) 45 40 54 32 41 Wave trough (cm) 15 24 43 14 29 Wave height (cm) ...read more.

Conclusion

The animals that inhabit the land, e.g. birds pecking at it. Where we measured it from, for example, we changed the measuring point each year (by accident). The size of measuring tools the number of measurements we were able to take the wave energy. Human reaction speed. I don't think that my work can be used to explain geographical concepts because, we didn't have the very best in equipment as it is too expensive and that we don't really need them because we aren't people who look for this kind of evidence for a living. If I were to repeat the exercise then I think that I would allow more time for the results to be taken. As it was we had to rush our experiments and record the results all inside the set time given to us. Also with more time we could have had more time to carry out more recordings for our experiments, therefore making them more accurate averages, and readings. Perhaps we could also have used more accurate tools to get better results that were more realistic. It would be good if we could have gone back on another day to record some more results, and check them against our first ones, whilst changing if they are wrong. The waves were constructive on that day and maybe on another day the waves may have been destructive causing major changes to our recordings/ results. Another thing that we could have done to improve the results would be to spend more time looking at the sea defences, as these are an important factor for stopping erosion. We did actually get to look at this area but again it wasn't possible to look at for a longer period of time due to the set time. We did use a booklet to record our results but these are not included in my project as they were not necessary. I have used a number of websites for my project and would like to thank them. Below are the websites I used. www.ask.co.uk www.ask.com www.wonz/demon.com www.geocities.com/slap_nuts_nwo www.google.com www.google.com/walton-on-the-naze www.lycos.co.uk www.yahoo.co.uk www.excite.co.uk - 1 - ...read more.

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