• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Evaluate the impact of deforestation in Indonesia.

Extracts from this document...


Evaluate the impact of deforestation in Indonesia. Deforestation is a major global problem with serious consequences to the planet. These consequences have negative effects on the climate, biodiversity, the atmosphere, and threatens the cultural and physical survival of indigenous peoples. Effects of deforestation are too great to continue destroying the forests. Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world with over 3000 islands including Borneo, Java and Sumatra. The islands lie on or close to the Equator. The climate is equatorial - hot and wet - and the typical vegetation is tropical rainforest giving Indonesia the name of the "Amazon of south-east Asia", there is a total forest area of more than 225 000 000 acres. Indonesia has 10% of the world's tropical rainforest; of this 61% is lowland evergreen broadleaf rainforest. However rapid deforestation is a major problem for this country. The estimated rates of deforestation in Indonesia have risen dramatically from 300 000 hectares per year in the 1970's to 1 million hectares per year in the 1990's. 72% of its original frontier forest has already been lost, and half of what remains is currently threatened. The main causes of deforestation are the subject of much debate in Indonesia. Many think the main causes are the role of the government, its development projects and the commercial logging companies. Others see the very high densities of population and the expansion of slash and burn farming in order to increase food supply as the main cause. ...read more.


Indonesia has the largest number of mammal species, over 20 000 plant species, and 17 percent of the worlds birds and many species have still to be discovered. With the destruction of the forest, species become extinct everyday, biodiversity and biomass are reduced, and the rates of net primary productivity are decreased. Tigers, orang-utan, gibbons, rhino, bears, elephants, crocodiles and thousands of other species in Indonesia are dependant on intact forest, and therefore face a serious risk of extinction due to habitat destruction. The clearance and burning of the rainforests may also be the cause of irreversible global climatic change. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide from the carbon that had previously been locked up in the biomass of the rainforest are suddenly released into the atmosphere. This traps out going long wave heat radiation from the Earth within the atmosphere - the greenhouse effect. This may be causing global warming. As a result sea levels are likely to rise, since the volume of water in the oceans will increase due to the general expansion of water as the oceans become warmer and glaciers and polar ice caps melt. Forest clearance also has far reaching effects on global rainfall patterns, since water vapour is no longer passed into the atmosphere from the trees by evapotranspiration, but becomes surface runoff instead. This absence of atmospheric water vapour may cause the amount of precipitation to be reduced or bring lengthy periods of drought, which increase the likelihood of desertification. ...read more.


Debt for nature schemes allow international conservation organisations to provide a debtor country with some relief from, and rescheduling of, their debt burden in exchange for guarantees that some of the money that would otherwise have been used for debt repayments is instead out towards conservation schemes and projects to protect the environment. On the whole it is felt that the negative impact of deforestation of the Indonesian rainforest totally outweighs the advantages. However, the consequences of the disadvantages take a long time to come about and do not affect the people of Indonesia directly. For example the global effects of deforestation such as the greenhouse effect, global climate and patterns of rainfall worldwide are seen to be important by everybody including Indonesians, as far they are concerned they are remote and removed from their everyday experience. People in developing countries are more concerned with employment, with earning enough money to survive. Their governments want desperately to boost their economies to achieve greater prosperity such as they see in the MEDW and this is their priority. The important thing for the future of the planet will be to establish a system that both protects the environment and respects the legitimate aspirations of developing. The concept of sustainable development as put forward by governments of the MEDW offers a way forward. As Paul Jepson, a researcher at Oxford's School of Geography, said: " We hope that not only the Indonesian government but also donor governments, industry, the scientific community and the conservation movement will unite in the face of the unprecedented forest loss to take positive action to protect Indonesia's forests." ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Environmental Management section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Environmental Management essays

  1. Topic: Critically contrast the approach to organisations of the classical management theorists with that ...

    environment then the mechanistic structure is effective but where the organization faces a high level of technological and market change then the organic structure is required. In other words, an organisation's structure should be mechanistic in a stable, certain environment, and organic when the environment is turbulent.

  2. What is Deforestation?

    Forests also occupied an outstanding position in the international deliberations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Two topics were dedicated entirely to forests namely Chapter 11 "Combating Deforestation" of Agenda 21 and the "Non-legally binding authoritative statement of

  1. What are the effects of Deforestation?

    During the past decade, the average concentration of CO2 has been increasing by about 1.5 ppm per year; as of 2002 the concentration was approximately 365, corresponding to about 765 Gt C. Terrestrial vegetation by comparison contains about 610 Gt C, stored mostly as cellulose in the stems and branches of trees.

  2. Discuss the relative importance of deforestation and its impact on the environment.

    Deforestation may not be the only factor that increases global warming but it certainly does play a major role in it and we can see the affects of this in a recent report of Greenland's glaciers. The rate at which these glaciers are travelling into the sea has increased.

  1. Critically contrast the approach to organisations of the classical management theorists with that of ...

    mass-production model that is characterised by hierarchy, clear line of authority, high formalisation and division of labour.

  2. Critically evaluate the view that understanding the multi-disciplinary nature Organisational Behaviour is essential to ...

    These three fashionable continuities can be identified, since the industrial revolution of the eighteenth century. (-See Fig.?3.) This typical, commonly agreed representation of current thinking can easily be criticised. There is some ambiguity regarding the use of postmodern and the hyphenated post-modern.

  1. Contemporary Issues and Physical Environments - Biodiversity.

    All life depends on water, and people and animals alike need it for drinking and plants require it to grow. In Australia, however, many of our river systems are in harsh conditions. Though rivers are renewable resource, they can be severely affected by humans.

  2. Tropical rainforests - causes and effects of deforestation, and possible alternatives to current practices.

    These root systems also store much of the annual rainfall, which is slowly released over the year to recharge ground waters and keep streams and rivers flowing during the dry season. Rainforests are well adapted to surviving on nutrient-poor soils, which enable them to develop ecosystems that are highly productive and sustainable.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work