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Evaluation of the London Docklands development corporation (LDDC)

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Introduction

Evaluation of the London Docklands development corporation (LDDC) History of the Docklands area: In the latter stages of the 19th century a large number of industries had been attracted to the Docklands. These industries included the tobacco trade, process of imported food and drink, furniture manufacturing, leather goods, shipbuilding and a wide variety of transport and engineering trades. Warehouses and factories sprang up, along with a maze of narrow streets, lined with rows of tightly packed houses. During the Second World War the area suffered heavy bomb damage. One third of the total warehousing was destroyed. This began the decline of the area. Migrant labour attracted people from all over the world. The mechanisation and containerisation during the 1960's also helped the area into further decline, mass unemployment followed. A law was also passed that allowed larger ships to enter the docks; this bought with it the need for more mechanisation and containerisation. Main aims of the LDDC: The LDDC was a government organised organisation set up to redevelop the Docklands area. It was set up in 1982 after the proposed idea was set up in 1979. The organisation was given �200 million to regenerate and redevelop the area. It was responsible for an area stretching 13KM eastward from the Tower Of London on the North side and London Bridge on the South side. ...read more.

Middle

> Improved public transport system. Docklands Light Railway carrying up to 321,000 passengers per week. More than 550,000 passengers in the last year used London City Airport, with 13 airlines flying to 18 European and UK destinations. Economic Regeneration > �1,744 billion public sector investment > �6,277 billion private sector investment > 2'28 million sq metres (24.57 million sq feet) of commercial and industrial space completed, including 1.37 million sq metres (14.7 million sq ft) of offices > First phase of Canary Wharf, with approximately 418,050 net square metres of office space completed > Businesses more than doubled from 1000 in 1982 to 2400 > Employment increased by 157% from 27,200 in 1981 to 70,000(66,700 in 1995) Building new communities > 19,844 new homes completed > Privately owned housing increased from 5% to 40% > �178 million expenditure on new and replacement housing for local residents > 7,900 local authority homes refurbished or improved > 95% population growth from 39,400 to 77,000 (68,000 in 1995) > Increasing variety of new shopping facilities. Almost 50 retail units let at Canary Wharf, including Tesco Metro, Tesco, Surrey Quays Shopping Centre; Asda, Beckton and Isle Of Dogs; Savacentre, Beckton; Kwiksave, Beckton and Wapping; Safeway > �116 million expenditure on education, training, support for industry, health and community programmes, amenities and environment > Contributions to 11 new primary schools and a new secondary school, Bacon's college, Rotherhithe > Contributions ...read more.

Conclusion

* Without a strong network of streets, parks and squares tying together the different major projects, the Isle Of Dogs quickly matured into a chaotic cityscape. * A social divide is evident, sometimes only separated by a single wall or security fence. Alternatives to the Docklands and its future Companies could have been forced to employ a certain percentage of the local community. One pitfall of this is that companies that have relocated in the Docklands will have to lose existing workers in place of the locals. Three main actions are needed to sustain the Docklands for the future. The Isle Of Dogs does not connect with the millennium dome; Wapping and Surrey Quays are separate enclaves; the Royal Docks lack infrastructure integration; the Hawksmoor churches are not in play. Bridges are needed, perhaps islands in the Thames as well, and parks are needed to form a green necklace along the waterside. Action is needed to create an infrastructure of support for the communities in Docklands. This involves public investment in transport, healthcare, education and recreation. There are private health and sports clubs, many dual carriageways, but few trains, cycle ways or doctor's surgeries. Even if you privatise public space as the LDDC did you cannot avoid public amenity. A Docklands university is being built, but there is still no Docklands hospital. ...read more.

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