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Evolution of management theories.

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EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THEORIES PRECLASSICAL CONTRIBUTORS Laid the groundwork for subsequent, broader inquires into the nature of management. � Robert Owen: He laid the groundwork for the human relation movement. He was the one who realized the importance of human resources and emphasized on improving the living conditions of the employees. � Charles Babbage: known as the " father of modern computing". He introduced the concept of work specialization i.e. the degree to which work is divided into various jobs. � Henry R. Towne: realized that management techniques could be applied factories. He outlined the importance of management as a science and called for the development of management principles that cannot be used in all types of management situations. CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT A management approach that emphasizes the total organization and ways to improve overall effectiveness and efficiency. Have three approaches: Scientific Management: A management perspective that focuses on the rational scientific study of work situations to improve efficiency. � Fredrick Winslow Taylor: he came up with time and motion study. The study involves breaking down the work tasks into various elements or motions, eliminating unnecessary motions, and determining the next way to do a job. ...read more.


� Transformation Process: The management, technological and production operations performed by the organization to convert inputs to output. � Output: The results, goods and services produced by an organization. � Feedback: is the information about the status and result of organizational activities. 2 types of system: Closed system: A system that is self sufficient with little or no interaction with the environment. Open System: A system that interacts with its environment and receives feedback. Three characteristics of open system: � Entropy: the tendency of systems to deteriorate over time � -ve entropy: The ability to acquire new inputs from the environment to keep the system from deteriorating. � Synergy: The idea that whole is greater than sum of its part. Contingency Theory: A management approach emphasizing that appropriate management behavior should be adapted to the unique circumstances of the organization and the specific situation. chapter3 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Forces that exist outside the organization that influence the ability to achieve organizational goal. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Forces inside the organization that can influence the organization and its performance, it includes owners and shareholders, board of directors, employees and organizational culture. ...read more.


� Advertising and public relations: are used to influence the environment such as - when they want to bring in more customers - find new employees - Sway the voting public for or against an issue � Boundary Spanning: organization roles that link and co ordinate the organization's plans and activities with the environment. � Recruiting: Process of hiring the right person for the right job. � Co-opting Absorption of key members of the environment into influential policy making positions in the organization. � Joint Venture: Teaming with one / more partners to jointly produce goods and services. � Trade associations: organizations in the same industry or that are interested in common issues. � Political activity: in which organizations attempt to enhance their competitive situations by influencing legislation and / or the behavior of government regulatory issues. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: is a system of shared values, assumptions, beliefs and norms that unite the members of the organization. � Symbols: object, act or events that communicates meaning to others. E.g. logos, flags, awards, posters � Stories: repeated narratives based on the events. � Rites and ceremonials: are planned activities that mark a specific event or occasion. They reinforce organizational values, reward employees who have achieved goals that will form a bond among staff and members. � Slogans: express the organization key values. ...read more.

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