• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain how HDI is determined.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

(a) Explain how HDI is determined (5) The HDI is one of many methods of determining human development, first introduced by the United Nations Program. It does not only focus on a country's economic wealth instead it looks at social, cultural and welfare criteria in a order to determine a country's quality of life. HDI is calculated by using three factors chosen by the UN. These can be seen below: 1. Average life expectancy 2. Adult literacy rate 3. Income (GDP per capita) These three indicators are combined and a rank is calculated from the highest (1.0) to the lowest (0) HDI. For example Canada which has the highest HDI of 0.961 has the highest GDP of US$21,916. The adult literacy rate and average life expectancy would also be high compared to Ethiopia which has an HDI of 0.252, this is because there are better medical facilities and schools as the country can afford to meet the needs of the population. However in Ethiopia the GDP per capita is only US$455 (more that ten times lower than Canada's). As a result the life expectancy, adult literacy and income rates are very low due to the inadequacy of nutrition, health and medical care. ...read more.

Middle

In order to measure development by using Seers method, data on poverty, unemployment and inequality has to be obtained. This would be quite easy to do in Britain whereas in many Third World countries getting hold of data on poverty, unemployment and inequality would be challenging as they do not have the finance or the expertise to gather large amounts of data. For example in Britain they have a population census every ten years, however in Third World countries they are less regular e.g. Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, a population census was not carried out for nearly 40 years between 1952 and 1991. Therefore without regular monitoring of data it is very difficult to plan ahead for social and welfare criteria such as schools and medical facilities. Another problem in comparing development between different countries is that they would have different opinions on what is meant by the terms poverty, unemployment and inequality and as a result different governments would use different criteria to define these. For example Britain might consider income levels, number of children receiving free school meals and need for government assistance in health care and income as a sign of poverty. ...read more.

Conclusion

The best social indicator is the human development index as it is a combination of adult literacy and years of schooling, life expectancy and GDP per person. The HDI was developed by the UN and extends the definition of development. Since its introduction in 1990 the HDI is recognized as a valuable tool which draws attention to important issues quite effectively. Nevertheless, although the HDI measures overall progress in a country in achieving human development, based on the three criteria its weakness is it does not show differences between rural and urban areas, between different regions or different genders. Another major criticism of the HDI is that it contains no measure of human rights or freedom, as it is difficult to measure compared to measuring the economic development within a country. It can be deduced that although social and economic indicators do have their relative merits, they have many weaknesses. Generally, it can be said that economic indicators measures the wealth of the country but gives little indication of the standard of living of the majority of people. Social indicators may seem to be better indicators because they reveal the general standard of living in a country; however they do not reflect inequalities in income distribution. They also don't take into account constant review as definitions and concepts of the term development change. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition essays

  1. International Ecotourism Management: Using Australia and Africa as Case Studies.

    Ecotourism is one of these submarkets, with adventure tourism, wilderness use and car camping also important (Eagles, 1995a). Research shows that park visitors' satisfaction with their visit is not directly correlated with use density or gross numbers. Satisfaction is more closely correlated with environmental quality, the adequacy of facilities and programs and the accuracy of expectations (Graefe et.

  2. Different types of travel destination. Study of Cardiff and Barcelona as travel destinations.

    As we can see from the table there were 3,643,562 tourists in Barcelona in the year 2000 over seven years this had grown more than any other European city and had grow by 1211.04% to 7,689,394 the other cities grew by less than 84.48% so we can see that Barcelona is doing well in relation to other European cities.

  1. Can developing countries ever catch up with developed countries

    strapped countries could pay their export bills."28 Compound interest rates, poor exchange rates and unfair trade practices mean that indebted countries are unable to repay this debt. As Strange points out, "aware of the mounting difficulties of third world debtor countries, banks did not stop lending.

  2. For two Economic Models, briefly describe the Model, and carefully compare and contrast their ...

    Therefore, it is unknown whether these currently developing countries will move in the same pattern as those already developed. Application of Ricardo's Model within India As Ricardo based his model largely on agriculture, it seems appropriate to choose India,

  1. Investigating Travel and Tourism

    * There are many different categories of tourist attractions in the UK. The main categories of attraction and the leading attraction in each category is as follows: Category of tourist attraction Leading attraction of category Visitors (million) Adult admission price (�)

  2. Comparing population, globalisation and social justice in Australia and Indonesia

    numbers of immigrants is an unwelcome strain on the Indonesian economy and society. Issues of population are important in Indonesia and Australia and the central population questions are integral to the well being of both countries. Indonesia's battling economic situation and Australia's rural-urban divide are important social justice issues for both countries.

  1. The social costs and benefits of business activity- Paddington Basin Regeneration Project.

    have more money to use elsewhere and the fact that employment is high will result in a prospers area. So much money is being invested in to the scheme and this will put a lot of pressure on the authority and developers to produce evidence of the success of the project quickly.

  2. Evaluate the usefulness of a range of criteria available for measuring levels of development ...

    Analysis The Gross National Product (GNP) of a country is one of the most recognisable measures of development. It is an estimate of the value of the countries production and measures the value of goods and services provided in a country, plus the balance of income from abroad.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work