• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain how HDI is determined.

Extracts from this document...


(a) Explain how HDI is determined (5) The HDI is one of many methods of determining human development, first introduced by the United Nations Program. It does not only focus on a country's economic wealth instead it looks at social, cultural and welfare criteria in a order to determine a country's quality of life. HDI is calculated by using three factors chosen by the UN. These can be seen below: 1. Average life expectancy 2. Adult literacy rate 3. Income (GDP per capita) These three indicators are combined and a rank is calculated from the highest (1.0) to the lowest (0) HDI. For example Canada which has the highest HDI of 0.961 has the highest GDP of US$21,916. The adult literacy rate and average life expectancy would also be high compared to Ethiopia which has an HDI of 0.252, this is because there are better medical facilities and schools as the country can afford to meet the needs of the population. However in Ethiopia the GDP per capita is only US$455 (more that ten times lower than Canada's). As a result the life expectancy, adult literacy and income rates are very low due to the inadequacy of nutrition, health and medical care. ...read more.


In order to measure development by using Seers method, data on poverty, unemployment and inequality has to be obtained. This would be quite easy to do in Britain whereas in many Third World countries getting hold of data on poverty, unemployment and inequality would be challenging as they do not have the finance or the expertise to gather large amounts of data. For example in Britain they have a population census every ten years, however in Third World countries they are less regular e.g. Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, a population census was not carried out for nearly 40 years between 1952 and 1991. Therefore without regular monitoring of data it is very difficult to plan ahead for social and welfare criteria such as schools and medical facilities. Another problem in comparing development between different countries is that they would have different opinions on what is meant by the terms poverty, unemployment and inequality and as a result different governments would use different criteria to define these. For example Britain might consider income levels, number of children receiving free school meals and need for government assistance in health care and income as a sign of poverty. ...read more.


The best social indicator is the human development index as it is a combination of adult literacy and years of schooling, life expectancy and GDP per person. The HDI was developed by the UN and extends the definition of development. Since its introduction in 1990 the HDI is recognized as a valuable tool which draws attention to important issues quite effectively. Nevertheless, although the HDI measures overall progress in a country in achieving human development, based on the three criteria its weakness is it does not show differences between rural and urban areas, between different regions or different genders. Another major criticism of the HDI is that it contains no measure of human rights or freedom, as it is difficult to measure compared to measuring the economic development within a country. It can be deduced that although social and economic indicators do have their relative merits, they have many weaknesses. Generally, it can be said that economic indicators measures the wealth of the country but gives little indication of the standard of living of the majority of people. Social indicators may seem to be better indicators because they reveal the general standard of living in a country; however they do not reflect inequalities in income distribution. They also don't take into account constant review as definitions and concepts of the term development change. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition essays

  1. Can developing countries ever catch up with developed countries

    the world's economy is computerised, and since economic dependency is being supplemented by informational and media dependency. The industrialised north holds the monopoly on technological innovation and knowledge, and this is proving to be a powerful instrument for transnational corporations in their quest to control global affairs.

  2. Discuss the alternative methods that developing countries might use to overcome the difficulties that ...

    Tourism has been successful in underdeveloped areas for example Kenya and North East Brazil. As consumers are now looking for more exotic, less 'built up' tourist destinations demand for safari holidays, for example has significantly increased. Tourism can start off a positive multiplier effect as many indirect jobs are created by the holiday makers e.g.

  1. Different types of travel destination. Study of Cardiff and Barcelona as travel destinations.

    The cost of going from Paris to Barcelona is �192.00 The full price of the train is �339 so �113 each. The other option that they can take is to get a plane from London Luton to Barcelona. This flight would leave London at 07.55GMT and arrive in Barcelona 11.05GMT+1.

  2. For two Economic Models, briefly describe the Model, and carefully compare and contrast their ...

    where there is still over 70% of the population based in rural areas. The model assumes there are three classes: landlords; labourers, and capitalists, using three factors of production: land; labour, and capital. It is important to remember that this is only a model, a simplified version of the truth.

  1. International Ecotourism Management: Using Australia and Africa as Case Studies.

    The complexity of tourism management in parks is often underestimated. Managers must balance environmental protection and visitor use of the resource. Park managers must deal with the demands of visitors, local residents, regional interests, the national government and the private tourism industry.

  2. Investigating Travel and Tourism

    Package holidays. * Package holidays developed in the 1960`s when jet travel was in force and people had more holiday time due to the holiday pay act by the government. * An example of a package holiday is from: http://www.thomson.co.uk/po/index.jsp Thomson are a well known travel agent which offer a range of holidays which can be suited to everyone.

  1. Tourism in pakistan

    feet above sea level and on to the People's Republic of China. The beaches on the shores of the Arabian Sea are perhaps few of the unspoiled ones in the world. It is in this scenario that Pakistan has emerged as a favorable tourist destination.

  2. Evaluate the usefulness of the range of criteria available for measuring levels of development ...

    There are also schemes which have been developed such as self-help schemes in Sao Paulo where local people are able to help themselves with materials provided by the local governments. There are many development indicators. Figure 1 below shows some of the indicators, but these are only a few of the many that are on hand.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work