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Explain how social, economical and political factors affect fertility and mortality.

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Grace Lau 17th November 03 Explain how social, economical and political factors affect fertility and mortality Population is all the inhabitants of one particular place and it is a key issue in the current world because the rise, fall or plateau in a population affects everyone within that place. There are three main components that change the population: fertility, mortality and migration. Births and deaths are labelled as what cause the natural increase or decrease in a population; however, migration is another reason why a population is constantly changing. The population in LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) are currently the highest and is still continuing to grow at present whereas the population in MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries) is relatively high, but is gradually slowing to a steady rate. Below are two population pyramids that show the population in an MEDC (UK) and an LEDC (Zimbabwe) and the number of males to females within each country in the year 2000: The two population pyramids are typical representations of MEDCs and LEDCs and both are continuously changing. ...read more.


Also, a major element is education. It has been proved that there is an inverse correlation between low education levels and high birth rates. Perhaps this is due to a lack of knowledge about reproduction but it could also be that people with high level qualifications prefer to pursue a career to having children. Also a significant reason for having children is the financial cost. A couple's ability to fund a child and its needs is one of the main economic explanations for a high or low birth rate. The living expenses as well as other needs for children are usually very high, so individuals avoid having children. However, in LEDCs, children are a means of survival and without the extra help with bringing money in, many families cannot survive. Since most employment in LEDCs is primary industries such as farming, children are a necessity when it comes to earning enough money. This explains the high birth rate as well as a high infant mortality rate. ...read more.


For instance, morbidity is the measure of the occurrence of illness. In both MEDCs and LEDCs, different diseases and illnesses cause death. In MEDCs, degenerative diseases related to lifestyle are the main cause of deaths related to health such as cancers and heart attacks whereas people in LEDCs are much more likely to experience infectious diseases, such as Typhoid, causing high death and infant mortality. This is known as the epidemiological transition, where causes of death move from infectious to degenerative diseases. Generally, there is a higher mortality because of the quality of life is lower in an LEDC. However, the development of medical services and health care in LEDCs has lowered the death rate considerably. There are political justifications for mortality such as war. Inevitably, there is a dramatic rise in death rates and a fall in birth rates after the war. Overall, the factors affecting fertility and mortality can be social, economical and political but also others such as lifestyle and health. These undoubtedly alter the population in LEDCs and MEDCs in different ways. However, the economy and culture customs affect the population the most, in my opinion. ...read more.

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