• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Exxon Valdez essay

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Midnight oil On March 24, 1989 at 4 minutes past midnight, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck a reef in Alaska's breath-taking Prince William Sound. Instantaneously the quiet waters of the sound became a sea of black as 10.9 million gallons of crude oil spilled into the ocean. Oil spills pose a terrible threat to our lands waters, and wildlife. As was learned from the Exxon Valdez disaster, when land, water, and wildlife are affected, people are affected as well. This paper will discuss the impact of the disaster on five groups of people, the cleanup and explain the events of the disaster. On March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound Alaska, the Exxon Valdez was moving South West after leaving Port Valdez. The ship was carrying over fifty million gallons of crude oil. When the Valdez was only twenty-eight miles from the port, it ran aground on Bligh reef. The bottom was ripped open, and 10.9 million gallons of North Slope Crude Oil spilled into the frozen Alaskan waters at a rate of two hundred thousand gallons per minute. Within hours, smaller tanker vessels arrived in order to off load the remaining oil. Unfortunately, the cleanup effort was hindered by an inadequate cleanup plan that had been created during the 1970's. ...read more.

Middle

The studies of sport fishing activity and tourism indicators e.g. vacation planning, visitor spending, and cancelled bookings all indicated decreases in recreation/tourism activity. The contingent valuation study estimated the lost passive use value at $2.8 billion. Their was a 9.8 percent decrease in sport fishing trips made in 1988 to 1989. Residents of Cordova Despite the facts that oil never actually licked the shores of the serene seaside town called Cordova, It is thought to be the hardest hit by diminished fishing. Before the spill Cordova was not only a seaside paradise but a secure form of income, employment and leisure. People who lived in Cordova for recreation, leisure and scenery no longer see a future in the town. Families who once walked the beaches at low tide scooping up clams and oysters for dinner now buy groceries instead. The community has suffered economic and social turmoil. Studies show domestic violence has increased 118.3% and the number of arrests increased 123.6%, the once lush population has been decreasing since the disaster. However not all is bad. On the bright side, the spill clean up has provided jobs for many unemployed citizens with a good job earning an average of $16.69 an hour, adding to a normal pay check of $1800 per week. ...read more.

Conclusion

The spill has helped show more people that we are a part of nature, not a part from it. In other words our mere survival on the planet is dependant on maintaining a healthy natural environment. If we destroy nature we destroy ourselves. The native Alaskan villagers are clearly living with nature. At the top of the food chain they are very aware of the devastation a major oil spill can have on their very existence. The Managers of large corporation's such as Exxon, operating out of offices in their urban jungle, too removed from the natural world, are perhaps less aware. They are after all less directly affected by oil spill disasters. However, in the long term, the tragedy is, I believe, that their 'ignorance' will catch up on all of us. Oil spills maybe best summarized by this....so long as there are ships, and humans steering them, accidents will happen, and maybe huge ones. Much is to be said on the cause and effect of the Exxon Valdez oil spill but since we cannot turn back time to correct our mistakes; we must see the brighter side of every picture and learn from our mistakes. The oil spill was an environmental nightmare that changed not only Prince William Sound, but the world. No longer will people blindly believe promises from corporations that their operations are completely safe. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Global Interdependence & Economic Transition essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating Travel & Tourism

    5 star(s)

    popular are places with self catering accommodation combined with activities and entertainment. Examples of this are Center Parcs and Butlins Catering Examples of catering are: * Fast Food Outlets - McDonalds, Pizza Hut, Burger King * Restaurants - Frankie and Bennies * Caf�'s * Pubs - Rose and Crown * Takeaways - Dominos Pizza * In-house Restaurants (Supermarkets)

  2. Different types of travel destination. Study of Cardiff and Barcelona as travel destinations.

    opened in 1929, the designer was Charles Buigas and many people thought that it would not be completed in time for its unveiling at the Great Universal Exhibition. It took over 3000 people and a year to build but it was completed in time for the unveiling.

  1. sustainable tourism in kenya

    These include:- Kenya Association of Hotel Keepers and Caterers (KAHC); Kenya Budget Hotels; Kenya Association of Travel Agents (KATA); Mombasa and Coast Tourist Association (MCTA); Kenya Budget Hotels Association; Kenya Air Charter Operators Association; and The Board of Airlines Representatives.

  2. 'There is nothing in the Montessori prepared environment that is there by chance.' Discuss.

    (Social, intellectual and physical) Continued on next page Purpose of a prepared environment, Continued Table 1: Summary of elements and their purpose in a Prepared Environment, Continued Description Purpose A picture of "The Madonna of the Chair." By Raphael (and Paintings by great Italian artists)

  1. The UK travel and tourism industry

    They offer a range of services. They meet and greet at the airport/terminal, organise excursions and offer specialist services e.g. guides for Japanese tourists. Domestic When a person normally resident in a country, undertakes a journey for the purposes of tourism within the borders of that country.

  2. Investigating Travel and Tourism

    Unlike buses and other public transport, you don't have a timetable and therefore you can go wherever you want, whenever you want. Having a car is also very convenient due to the flexibility. * Unlike public transport, there is no control of route or pace when owning your own car.

  1. Leisure and Recreation Industry.

    game of football but a major tourist attraction with bars, restaurants, shops, a museum and conference facilities. Arts and Entertainment Arts-this is made up of activities which are not financially independent, like performing arts. Tickets for such events are expensive, the theatre Clwyd in Mold charges about �50 per ticket.

  2. What is the impact of Tourism and Recreation on Epping Forest?

    away from the M25 Motorway, which runs all around Greater London, connecting London to other townbs and cities nationwide. Depending on the destination of departure states whether or not the M25 will be a requirement, with a number of smaller but still affective motorways, in the vicinity; including the M1,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work